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4463 Hydrologic Atlas 130, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Prospect and southwestern Louisville, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4462 Hydrologic Atlas 130, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Prospect and southwestern Louisville, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4461 Hydrologic Atlas 130, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Prospect and southwestern Louisville, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4460 Hydrologic Atlas 130, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Prospect and southwestern Louisville, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4459 Hydrologic Atlas 130, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Prospect and southwestern Louisville, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4458 Hydrologic Atlas 129, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Uniontown area and Wickliffe, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4457 Hydrologic Atlas 129, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Uniontown area and Wickliffe, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4456 Hydrologic Atlas 129, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Uniontown area and Wickliffe, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4455 Hydrologic Atlas 129, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Uniontown area and Wickliffe, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4454 Hydrologic Atlas 129, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Uniontown area and Wickliffe, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4453 Hydrologic Atlas 111, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between southwestern Louisville and West Point, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4452 Hydrologic Atlas 111, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between southwestern Louisville and West Point, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4451 Hydrologic Atlas 110, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Stanley area, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4450 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4449 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4448 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4447 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4446 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4445 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4444 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4443 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4442 Hydrologic Atlas 98, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Newport and Warsaw, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4441 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4440 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4439 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4438 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4437 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4436 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4435 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4434 Hydrologic Atlas 97, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Ethridge and the Twelvemile Island, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4433 Hydrologic Atlas 96, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Spottsville and Reed areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4432 Hydrologic Atlas 96, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Spottsville and Reed areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4431 Hydrologic Atlas 95, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Wolf Creek and West Point areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4430 Hydrologic Atlas 95, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Wolf Creek and West Point areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4429 Hydrologic Atlas 95, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Wolf Creek and West Point areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4428 Hydrologic Atlas 95, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Wolf Creek and West Point areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4427 Hydrologic Atlas 95, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Wolf Creek and West Point areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4426 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4425 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4424 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4423 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4422 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4421 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4420 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4419 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4418 Hydrologic Atlas 94, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between the Manchester Islands and Silver Grove, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4417 Hydrologic Atlas 91, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Henderson area, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4416 Hydrologic Atlas 91, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Henderson area, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4415 Hydrologic Atlas 91, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Henderson area, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4414 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4413 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4412 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4411 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4410 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4409 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4408 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4407 Hydrologic Atlas 75, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between Catlettsburg and South Portsmouth, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4406 Hydrologic Atlas 74, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Lewisport and Owensboro areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4405 Hydrologic Atlas 74, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Lewisport and Owensboro areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4404 Hydrologic Atlas 74, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Lewisport and Owensboro areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4403 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4402 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4401 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4400 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4399 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4398 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4397 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4396 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4395 Hydrologic Atlas 73, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River between South Portsmouth and the Manchester Islands, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4394 Hydrologic Atlas 72, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Hawesville and Cloverport areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4393 Hydrologic Atlas 72, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Hawesville and Cloverport areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4392 Hydrologic Atlas 72, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Hawesville and Cloverport areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4391 Hydrologic Atlas 72, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Hawesville and Cloverport areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4390 Hydrologic Atlas 72, Geology and hydrology of alluvial deposits along the Ohio River in the Hawesville and Cloverport areas, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
4372 Slump block in Tuscaloosa gravels  View Geologic Map
4371 Tuscaloosa Formation, bluff on Kentucky Lake at Lighthouse Landing, Grand Rivers, KY  View Geologic Map
4370 Tuscaloosa Formation exposed in bluff at Lighthouse Landing on Kentucky Lake  View Geologic Map
4369 Kenwood Siltstone Mbr.  View Geologic Map
4368 mapped as New Providence Mbr. of Borden  View Geologic Map
4367 bedded sand and gravel  View Geologic Map
4366 water seep from above organic silt loam  View Geologic Map
4365 Tygarts Saltpeter Cave Arch Complex 
4364 Tygarts Saltpeter Cave Arch Complex 
4363 Tygarts Saltpeter Cave Arch Complex 
4362 Tygarts Creek Tunnel 
4361 Tygarts Creek Tunnel 
4360 Sky Crack 
4359 Looking east at the valley of Black Lick Creek, Breckinridge County, KY.  View Geologic Map
4358 Looking across the Ohio River into Warsaw, Gallatin County, KY from Indiana SR 156. Warsaw is build on a low Wisconsin glacial outwash terrace mapped as Qay on the 1:24,000 Patriot GQ.  View Geologic Map
4357 Looking south at the spring at the headwaters of the Licking River in far southern Magoffin County, KY. The moss covered stone marks the spring that is the source of the Licking River 287 river miles distant from its junction with the Ohio River at Covington.  View Geologic Map
4356 Looking northeast across the headwaters of a tributary to Cooper Run near the southwestern limit of the watershed of the South Fork of the Licking River as seen from US-460 opposite the entrance to the former Johnstons Inn in Bourbon County, Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
4355 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Boiling Branch Arch. 
4353 Boiling Branch Arch. 
4350 Rough Creek Fault System exposure. Core of fold is Menard Ls.   View Geologic Map
4349 Loess over weathered Alluvium? associated with deposition of Underlying QTg. Tape measure is 2 meters.   View Geologic Map
4348 Loess and Loess mixed with QTg  View Geologic Map
4347 Exposure of Loess, Very old Loess and possibly Alluvium associated with the QTg  View Geologic Map
4346 Weathered Loess exposure. Residuum is likley not far down.   View Geologic Map
4345 Alluvium exposed in Creek. Tape measure is 2meters.  View Geologic Map
4344 Mine spoil at old strip pit.   View Geologic Map
4343 Alluvium exposed along Pond Creek and Rockport Paradise Rd.   View Geologic Map
4342 Sandstone exposed in RR cut possibly above the #11 and #12 coal and below the #13.   View Geologic Map
4341 Organic mat from Raleigh area, "Raleigh Slough" exposed on the banks of the Ohio River  View Geologic Map
4340 Close up of Tuscaloosa Fm.? Clay  View Geologic Map
4339 Cream colored clay with iron staining. Gravel appeares to be coming from farther up hill. Possibly Clay of the Tuscaloosa Fm.   View Geologic Map
4338 Sandstone in Carbondale Fm."Upper Vermillionville"  View Geologic Map
4336 landslide exposing the Carthage Ls. of the Bond Fm.  View Geologic Map
4335 Sandstone boulder eroding out of QTc. Knife is 4.5 inches in length  View Geologic Map
4333 Erosion of Qss deposit in Gravel Pit; in place cobble of black chert (Ft Payne?)  View Geologic Map
4332 Exposure of Loess, Old silt and sand(Qss), and Gravel(QTc)  View Geologic Map
4331 Old Gravel pit in QTc deposit with recent fall  View Geologic Map
4328   View Geologic Map
4326   View Geologic Map
4304 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Jim Dick natural arch. 
4302 Sheep Twin natural arch in McCreary County, Kentucky. 
4301 Sheep Twin natural arch in McCreary County, Kentucky 
4300 Sheep Twin natural arch in McCreary County, Kentucky. 
4299 Jim Dick natural arch in McCreary County, Kentucky. 
4298 Jim Dick natural arch in McCreary County, Kentucky. 
4297 Jim Dick natural arch in McCreary County, Kentucky. 
4288 Scott Waninger using Giddings soil probe for subsurface investigation in Union County.  View Geologic Map
4287 Steve Martin giving the "thumbs up" during subsurface investigation in Union County.  View Geologic Map
4286 Steve Martin conducting subsurface investigation using a Giddings soil probe in Union County.  View Geologic Map
4285 Scott Waninger setting up Giddings soil probe for subsurface investigation in Union County.  View Geologic Map
4284 Setting up Giddings soil probe for subsurface investigation in Union County.  View Geologic Map
4282 Looking downstream along the Ohio River into Boone County, KY and toward Shawnee Lookout State Park from St. Andrews Road, Ashton Oaks Subdivision, North Bend, Hamilton County, OH.  View Geologic Map
4281 Looking southwest across Two Mile Creek and Bond Farm at a typical, well tended grassy slope of the Kope Formation close to Eagle Creek from KY-35 about one mile south of Sparta in Gallatin County, KY. Thick, well-mowed grass stabilizes a Kope slope as does tree cover.  View Geologic Map
4280 Looking north at a vertical section of beds of the Bull Fork Formation behind the Buttermilk Town Center in Crescent Springs, Kenton County, KY. An excellent and safe place to observe post Fairview stratigraphy. The shale is probably the Miamitown.  View Geologic Map
4279 Teay''s Tributary Deposit Boundary  View Geologic Map
4278 Large slide along KY 11 triggered after heavy rainfall. Road was closed and a campground evacuated.  View Geologic Map
4277 Landslide along old KY 10.  View Geologic Map
4276 Landslide along roadway. Slide occurred within an existing slide that had been repaired. Heavy rains triggered the failure.  View Geologic Map
4274 Generations of mitigation along a KY 1829 landslide.  View Geologic Map
4273 Old slide (historic?) along KY 1087. Large boulders in colluvial landslide mass observed along the road.  View Geologic Map
4272 Thin, translational slide along Doe Run Lake  View Geologic Map
4271 Small landslide in road embankment  View Geologic Map
4270 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Lichen Or Not. 
4268 Lichen Or Not is a natural arch on top of Slade Twin Arch_west. 
4266 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Cathedral Arch Hallway. 
4265 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Mariba Lower Arch_2. 
4263 Narnia Passage Arch. 
4262 Cathedral Arch. 
4261 Cathedral Arch. 
4260 Cathedral Arch. 
4259 Upper entrance to Cathedral Arch Hallway. 
4258 Lower entrance to Cathedral Arch Hallway. 
4257 Mariba Lower Arch_2. 
4256 Mariba Lower Arch_1. 
4255 Mariba Lower Arch_1 
4254 Mariba Forks Cave Arch. 
4252 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Tripod Park. 
4251 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Bear Track Arch. 
4250 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Bear Track Split Arch. 
4248 Tripod Park. 
4247 Tripod Park. 
4246 Bear Track Shelf Arch. 
4245 Exposure of rock containing Bear Track Arch and Bear Track Shelf Arch. 
4244 Bear Track Arch. 
4243 Bear Track Arch from the top of the arch. Opening is just beyond fence for the community park. 
4242 Bear Track Split Arch. 
4241 Bear Track Split Arch. 
4239 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Double Oak Tree Arch. 
4238 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Hole in the Wall. 
4236 Double Oak Tree Arch. 
4235 Double Oak Tree Arch. 
4234 Hole in the Wall. 
4233 Hole in the Wall. 
4231 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Gate Post Hill. 
4230 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Ratliff. 
4228 Gate Post Hill is a natural arch in Menifee County. 
4227 Gate Post Hill is a natural arch in Menifee County. 
4226 Gate Post Hill is a natural arch in Menifee County. 
4225 Ratliff is a natural arch in Menifee County. 
4223 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Yahoo Arch.  View Geologic Map
4222 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Markers Arch.  View Geologic Map
4220 Yahoo Arch is a natural bridge in McCreary County.  View Geologic Map
4219 Yahoo Arch is a natural bridge in McCreary County.  View Geologic Map
4218 A small pillar arch associated with Markers Arch.  View Geologic Map
4217 Markers Arch is a natural bridge in McCreary County.  View Geologic Map
4216 Markers Arch is a natural bridge located in McCreary County.  View Geologic Map
4214 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Wildcat Arch. 
4213 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Upper Cliff Arch. 
4211 Wildcat Arch. 
4210 Upper Cliff Arch. 
4209 Upper Cliff Arch. 
4207 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Cold Spring Arch. 
4205 Kentucky 132 
4204 Cold Spring Arch 
4203 Cold Spring Arch. 
4200 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Elbow Pillar. 
4199 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Slotted. 
4198 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Brer Rabbit. 
4197 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Tripod. 
4195 Elbow Pillar. 
4194 Elbow Pillar. 
4193 A view from inside Slotted arch. 
4192 A view from inside of Slotted arch. 
4191 Slotted. 
4190 Brer Rabbit 
4189 Brer Rabbit. 
4188 Tripod. Photo taken by Allen Dawson. 
4187 Tripod. 
4186 Tripod. 
4184 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Joint Twin Pillars. 
4183 Rose diagram showing joint orientations along Little Sandy River.  View Geologic Map
4182 Rose diagram showing joint orientations along Little Sandy River.  View Geologic Map
4181 Rose diagram showing joint orientations along Little Sandy River.  View Geologic Map
4180 Rose diagram showing joint orientations along Little Sandy River.  View Geologic Map
4178 Joint Twin Pillars 
4177 Joint Twin Pillars 
4175 Slump below a trailer. Approximately 50 -75 ft in length.   View Geologic Map
4174 Colluvium accumulation zone at bottom of old landslide and along creek.  View Geologic Map
4173 Scarp face from old landslide.  View Geologic Map
4172 Water fall with small alluvial fan at the base.  View Geologic Map
4171 Small alluvial fan coming out of a very small drainage.  View Geologic Map
4170 Possible mining or other disturbance of the area.  View Geologic Map
4169 Alluvial fan along convergence of two small drainages.  View Geologic Map
4168 Alluvial Fan at Hood''s Church  View Geologic Map
4167 Slope failure along side of retaining wall, fossiliferous limestone can be seen here.  View Geologic Map
4166 Barrow Pit showing exposed colluvium.  View Geologic Map
4165 Along Dry Creek Road, there are several potential areas for slope failure. A chain link has been placed along side of road, but its'' use is unclear. This picture is just a small potential area for landslides.  View Geologic Map
4163 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Hopeful Pillar. 
4162 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at After Lunch Arch. 
4161 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Lunch Arch. 
4160 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Side Drain Arch 
4158 Back opening for Little Maze arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4157 Side opening of Little Maze arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4156 Front opening for Little Maze arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4154 Spectacles is located along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4153 Hopeful Pillar is a small pillar arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. Hopefully, this will become a larger arch one day! 
4152 Hopeful Pillar is a small pillar arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. Hopefully it will be come a larger arch one day! 
4151 Pinnacle arch is a small arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4150 After Lunch Arch is near Lunch Arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4149 After Lunch Arch is near Lunch Arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4148 Lunch Arch is located along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4147 Lunch Arch is located along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4146 Split and Pillar are two arches which share a common location. This picture is of the "pillar" arch. 
4145 Split and Pillar arches are two arches located in one location. This picture is of the "split" arch. 
4144 Side Drain Arch is a limestone arch located in Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4142 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at V Pillar. 
4141 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Y Base Pillar. 
4140 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at The Y. 
4139 Rose diagram showing joint orientation of Cave Watcher. 
4137 V Pillar is an arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4136 V Pillar is an arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4135 V Pillar is an arch along Cave Hollow in Lee County. 
4134 Y Base Pillar is an arch located below The Y arch. 
4133 Y Base Pillar is an arch located below The Y arch. 
4132 The back opening of The Y arch located in Lee County. 
4131 The side opening of The Y arch located in Lee County. 
4130 The front opening of The Y arch located in Lee County. 
4129 Cave Watcher is a limestone arch in Lee County. 
4128 Cave Watcher is a limestone arch in Lee County. 
4126 Joint in exposed bedrock on county road 1021 along Hurricane Creek in Boyd County near Ashland, KY.  View Geologic Map
4125 Joint in exposed bedrock along Hurricane Creek in Boyd County near Ashland, KY.  View Geologic Map
4124 Joint in exposed bedrock along Hurricane Creek in Boyd County near Ashland, KY.  View Geologic Map
4122 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Elephant Head in Edmonson County. 
4121 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Eye Socket in Edmonson County. 
4120 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at First Creek Double in Edmonson County. 
4119 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Talon in Edmonson County. 
4118 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Hobbit Hole in Edmonson County. 
4116 Elephant Head is a pillar arch in Edmonson County. 
4115 Eye Socket is a pillar arch in Edmonson County 
4114 Eye Socket is a pillar arch in Edmonson County. 
4113 First Creek Double arch is a pillar arch in Edmonson County. 
4112 First Creek Double arch is a pillar arch in Edmonson County. 
4111 Talon is a pillar arch in Edmonson County. 
4109 Wham is a buttress arch in Edmonson County. 
4108 Wham is a buttress arch in Edmonson County. 
4107 Hobbit Hole is a pillar arch in Edmonson County. 
4105 Hobbit Hole is a pillar arch in Edmonson County. 
4101 Farmers Siltstone Member of the Borden Formation on KY-32 just north of its intersection with I-64 near Morehead, Rowan County, KY. The evenly bedded sandstone unit is a cratonic bed that coarsens upward and is abruptly capped by another lobe.  View Geologic Map
4099 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Last Call Twin Arches. 
4098 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Little Sinking Creek Arch Complex. 
4096 Little Sinking Cave Bridge 
4095 Last Call Twin Arches. 
4094 Last Call Twin Arches 
4093 Little Sinking Creek Arch Complex 
4092 One of the openings associated with the Little Sinking Creek Arch Complex. 
4091 Middle opening associated with the Little Sinking Creek Arch Complex. 
4090 One of the openings associated with the Little Sinking Creek Arch Complex. 
4087 Colluvium along Cell Tower. Trees growing at angles, poor soil development.   View Geologic Map
4086 Colluvium outcrop near cell tower. No soil development, lots of fragmented rocks. Trees growing at angles.   View Geologic Map
4085 Colluvium outcrop near cell tower. No soil development, lots of fragmented rocks. Trees growing at angles.   View Geologic Map
4084 Residuum on ridgetop. Trees straight up, low slope, a lot of residences.   View Geologic Map
4082 Waterfall and outcrop at Hurricane Fork. Waterfall is approximately 10 ft in height. Alluvium along creek is very thick in spots. Possibly from lake deposits.  View Geologic Map
4081 View of alluvium along KY-5 of East Fork of Little Sandy. Broad floodplain with oxbow.  View Geologic Map
4080 Colluvium along Daniels Fork. Trees are angled on high slope.  View Geologic Map
4079 Daniels Fork Alluvium  View Geologic Map
4078 Alluvium along Daniels Fork.  View Geologic Map
4077 Alluvium near mouth of Daniels Fork. Sandy dark brown alluvium.  View Geologic Map
4076 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Noah Creek Bridge in Christian County. 
4075 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Gile Arch in Christian County. 
4074 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Fort Campbell Arch in Christian County. 
4073 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Triplet Tunnels in McCreary County. 
4071 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Troxel in McCreary County. 
4069 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Negro Creek Arch in McCreary County. 
4067 Noah Creek Bridge is located in Christian County and has a span of 13.2 feet. 
4066 Noah Creek Bridge in Christian County has a span of 13.2 feet. 
4065 Gile Arch in Christian County has a span of 1 foot and is 7.5 feet high. 
4064 Gile Arch located in Christian County has a span of 1 foot and is 7.5 feet high. 
4063 Fort Campbell Arch in Christian County has a span of 7.8 feet. 
4062 Fort Campbell Arch in Christian County has a span of 7.8 feet. 
4059 Alluvium along Kouns Rd. Brown silty-sand.  View Geologic Map
4058 Alluvium along Little Hood Creek near rundown Breezeway Park. Brown silty-sand.  View Geologic Map
4057 Alluvium near Fairview Football field along Little Hood Creek. Dark brown in color and silty-sandy.  View Geologic Map
4056 Alluvium along Hood Creek. Brown silty-sand sediment. Very flat.  View Geologic Map
4055 Alluvium along Rockgate Rd. Brown silty-sand alluvium.  View Geologic Map
4054 One of the Triplet Tunnels in McCreary County with a span of 4.5 feet. 
4053 One of the Triplet Tunnels in McCreary County with a span of 11.3 feet. 
4052 View from the top of one of the Triplet Tunnels in McCreary County. This arch has a span of 11.3 feet. 
4051 View from the top of one of the Triplet Tunnels in McCreary County. This arch has a span of 3 feet. 
4050 Troxel arch in McCreary County has a span of 10.3 feet. 
4049 Troxel arch in McCreary County has a span of 10.3 feet. 
4047 Rockhouse along Rockhouse Fork. Overhang over small creek, with many no trespassing signs along entry.  View Geologic Map
4046 Negro Creek Arch in McCreary County has a span of 42.5 feet. 
4045 Negro Creek Arch in McCreary County has a span of 42.5 feet. 
4043 Negro Creek Arch in McCreary County has a span of 42.5 feet. 
4041 Callixylon cross section  View Geologic Map
4040 Portion of a Callixylon tree  View Geologic Map
4039 Channel sandstone above #13\Baker ? Coal  View Geologic Map
4038 Alluvium outcrop  View Geologic Map
4036 Dipping beds of Alluvium  View Geologic Map
4035 Dipping beds of alluvium  View Geologic Map
4034 Dipping beds of Alluvium  View Geologic Map
4033 Alluvium Outcrop  View Geologic Map
4031 eluviated zone  View Geologic Map
4030 Slump along the Green River  View Geologic Map
4029 Slump slong the Green River  View Geologic Map
4028 Alluvium along the Green River  View Geologic Map
4027 Alluvial outcrop along the Green River  View Geologic Map
4026 Sandstone underneath Madisonville\West Franklin Ls.  View Geologic Map
4025 Sandstone in the Shelburn Fm. underneath the Madisonville\West Franklin Ls.  View Geologic Map
4024 Green River floodplain alluvium  View Geologic Map
4022 Herrin #11 coal  View Geologic Map
4018 Mine spoil  View Geologic Map
4017 Junction of Big Sandy and Ohio Rivers, showing flood wall and the meeting of the two rivers.  View Geologic Map
4016 Igneous and metamorphic pebble in old alluvium.  View Geologic Map
4015 5 ft waterfall at Hood Creek  View Geologic Map
4014 5 ft waterfall at Hood Creek  View Geologic Map
4013 Landslide at Providence Apartments.   View Geologic Map
4010 Mine spoil on a Princess No. 7 strip mine  View Geologic Map
4008 Picture of alluvium  View Geologic Map
4005 Ripple marks of the limestone of the Kope Formation.  View Geologic Map
4004 Camp Nelson Limestone (Palisades)on the Dix River  View Geologic Map
4003 Looking southeast across the Ohio River into a steep, wooded hillside in Cresswood Hills, Kenton County, KY. This hillside is underlain mostly by the Kope Formation and also is an actively eroding cut bank of the river in its narrows at Anderson Ferry.  View Geologic Map
4002 Looking southwest across Two Mile Creek at a typical, well tended grassy slope of the Kope Formation. Photo taken from KY-35 about one mile south of Sparta. Thick, well mowed grass and trees help stabilize Kope slopes from mass movement.  View Geologic Map
4001 Bull Fork Formation (Ob) near mile 115.1, I-64, Montgomery County.  View Geologic Map
3998 Iron-stained hardground or discontinuity between calloway Creek Limestone and the Grant Lake Limestone Frank Ettensohn).  View Geologic Map
3995 Contact between the Calloway Creek Limestone (lower) and the Grant Lake Limestone.  View Geologic Map
3994 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Creelsboro Bridge.  View Geologic Map
3993 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Koger Arch.  View Geologic Map
3992 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Natural Arch.  View Geologic Map
3990 Creelsboro Bridge.  View Geologic Map
3989 Creelsboro Bridge.  View Geologic Map
3988 Koger Arch.  View Geologic Map
3987 Koger Arch.  View Geologic Map
3986 Natural Arch.  View Geologic Map
3985 Natural Arch.  View Geologic Map
3982 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Bison Arch. 
3981 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Guardian Arch. 
3980 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Suzannas Arch. 
3979 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Left Flank Shelf. 
3978 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Tight Hollow Pillar. 
3977 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Tight Hollow Branch Arch. 
3976 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Waterway Arch. 
3975 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Split Pillar.  View Geologic Map
3974 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Double Pillar Arch. 
3973 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Double Top Arch. 
3972 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mulehead Arch. 
3971 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Rough Arch. 
3970 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Cliffcrack Arch. 
3969 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Flea Cave Arch. 
3968 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Lous Arch. 
3967 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Stone Doorway Window. 
3966 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Cubby South. 
3965 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Hominy Hole Double. 
3964 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Military Wall Arch.  View Geologic Map
3963 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Big Hole.  View Geologic Map
3962 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Kentucky 79. 
3961 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Martin Fork Triplets_upper. 
3960 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Martin Fork Triplets_middle. 
3959 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Martin Fork Triplets_lower. 
3958 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mill Creek Arch_3. 
3957 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Double Cave Branch Arch. 
3956 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Lesser John Arch. 
3955 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Black John Spout. 
3954 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Black John Arch. 
3953 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Poundstone Arch. 
3952 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Tall Arch. 
3951 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Bear Pen Double Bridge. 
3950 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Short Life.  View Geologic Map
3949 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Dark Pillar.  View Geologic Map
3948 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Breakaway Arch. 
3947 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mill Creek Window_4. 
3946 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mill Creek Window_3. 
3945 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mill Creek Window_1. 
3944 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mill Creek West Arch. 
3943 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mill Creek East Arch. 
3942 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Mill Creek Pillar. 
3941 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Kie Cave Twin Arches. 
3940 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Goodrum Bridge. 
3938 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Huckleberry Arch. 
3937 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Zoo Arch_3. 
3936 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Zoo Arch_2. 
3935 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Zoo Arch_1. 
3934 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Bertis Arch. 
3933 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Knob Skylight Window. 
3931 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Rattlesnake Arch. 
3929 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Split Pillar Arch. 
3928 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Ravens Window. 
3927 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Millers Double Arch. 
3926 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Three Door Arch. 
3925 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Sinking Fork Arch. 
3924 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Point Crack Arch. 
3923 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Arch_2. 
3922 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Arch_3. 
3921 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Arch_4. 
3920 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Doorway Arch. 
3919 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Upper Bench Arch. 
3918 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Noahs Spout. 
3917 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for One Way Arch. 
3916 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Sal Branch Lower Arch. 
3915 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Deformed Pillar Arch. 
3914 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Sal Branch Lower Arch 
3913 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Sal Branch Lower Arch 
3911 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Sal Branch Arch. 
3910 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Tower Rock Fin Arch. 
3906 Asymmetrical para ripples of the Kope Formation near Banklick Creek  View Geologic Map
3905 natural slide along reservoir, thin translational, debris and large trees into creek, homes above   View Geologic Map
3904 Arch_1. 
3902 Hawkeye Arch. 
3901 Bison Arch. 
3900 Bison Arch. 
3899 Guardian Arch. 
3897 Suzannas Arch 
3896 Suzannas Arch 
3895 Left Flank Shelf. 
3894 Tight Hollow Pillar 
3893 Tight Hollow Branch Arch. 
3892 Tight Hollow Branch Arch. 
3891 Waterway Arch. This is probably a false arch. 
3890 Split Pillar  View Geologic Map
3889 Double Pillar Arch. 
3888 Double Top Arch. 
3887 Mulehead Arch 
3885 Rough Arch. 
3884 Rough Arch. 
3883 Cliffcrack Arch 
3882 Flea Cave Arch. 
3881 Flea Cave Arch. 
3880 Flea Cave Arch. 
3879 Lous Arch. 
3878 Lous Arch. 
3877 Stone Doorway Window. 
3876 Cubby North 
3875 Cubby South. 
3873 Hominy Hole Window. 
3872 Hominy Hole Double 
3871 Hominy Hole Double 
3870 Military Wall Arch.  View Geologic Map
3869 Military Wall Arch.  View Geologic Map
3868 Big Hole.  View Geologic Map
3867 Big Hole.  View Geologic Map
3866 Kentucky 79. 
3865 Martin Fork Triplets_upper. 
3864 Martin Fork Triplets_upper 
3863 Martin Fork Triplets_middle 
3862 Martin Fork Triplets_lower 
3861 Martin Fork Triplets_lower. 
3860 Martin Fork Triplets_lower. 
3858 Mill Creek Window_2 
3857 Mill Creek Arch_3 
3856 Mill Creek Arch_3 
3854 Double Cave Branch Arch. 
3853 Lesser John Arch 
3852 Black John Spout. 
3851 Black John Arch 
3850 Black John Arch. 
3849 Poundstone Arch. 
3848 Poundstone Arch. 
3847 Tall Arch. 
3846 Tall Arch. 
3844 Bear Pen Lower Bridge. 
3843 Bear Pen Double Bridge 
3842 Bear Pen Double Bridge. 
3841 Short Life.  View Geologic Map
3840 Dark Pillar.  View Geologic Map
3839 Dark Pillar.  View Geologic Map
3838 Breakaway Arch. 
3837 Breakaway Arch. 
3836 Mill Creek Window_4 
3835 Mill Creek Window_3 
3834 Mill Creek Window_1. 
3833 Mill Creek West Arch. 
3832 Mill Creek West Arch. 
3831 Mill Creek East Arch. 
3830 Mill Creek East Arch. 
3829 Mill Creek Pillar 
3828 Mill Creek Pillar 
3827 Kie Cave Twin Arches. 
3826 Kie Cave Twin Arches 
3825 Kie Cave Twin Arches. 
3824 Goodrum Bridge 
3823 Goodrum Bridge. 
3820 Huckleberry Arch. 
3819 Huckleberry Arch. 
3818 Zoo Arch_3 
3817 Top opening of Zoo Arch_2. 
3816 Bottom opening of Zoo Arch_2. 
3815 Zoo Arch_1. 
3813 Bertis Arch 
3812 Bertis Arch. 
3811 Knob Skylight Window 
3810 Rattlesnake Arch. 
3809 Rattlesnake Arch 
3808 Split Pillar Arch 
3807 Ravens Window 
3806 Millers Double Arch 
3805 Three Door Arch 
3804 Sinking Fork Arch. 
3803 Point Crack Arch. 
3802 Arch_2 
3801 Arch_3 
3799 Arch_4. 
3798 Arch_4. 
3797 Doorway Arch. 
3796 Doorway Arch. 
3794 Upper Bench Arch 
3793 Upper Bench Arch 
3792 Noahs Spout 
3791 Noahs Spout. 
3790 One Way Arch. 
3789 One Way Arch. 
3788 Deformed Pillar Arch. 
3787 Sal Branch Lower Arch. 
3786 Sal Branch Arch. 
3784 Sal Branch Arch. 
3783 Sal Branch Arch. 
3782 Tower Rock Fin Arch. 
3780 thin loess over resuduin with extremely well developed fragipan  View Geologic Map
3779 relatively undisturbed surface of the gravel deposit  View Geologic Map
3778   View Geologic Map
3777 chert-gravel 
3776 chert gravel on upland bench above lacustrine terrace 
3775 Active cutbank along Fowler Creek  View Geologic Map
3773 Middle Ordovician Camp Nelson Limestone along the Dix River on the Mercer and Garrard County line.  View Geologic Map
3772 The Glencairn Fault is exposed on the east side of Ky. 11 in Wolfe County. The Glencairn Fault is a normal fault related to the Irvine–Paint Creek Fault System where the hanging wall Slade and Borden Formations have been downthrown to the south.   View Geologic Map
3771 The Glencairn Fault is exposed on the east side of Kentucky State Highway 11 in Wolfe County. The Glencairn Fault is a normal fault related to the Irvine - Paint Creek Fault System where the hanging wall Slade and Borden Formations have been downthrown to the south.  View Geologic Map
3769 Waterfall along Rock Bridge Trail near Rock Bridge in the Red River Gorge Geological Area in Wolfe County.   View Geologic Map
3766 Indian Arch is located in Menifee County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 36 feet and is 6.5 feet high.  View Geologic Map
3763 Indian Arch is located in Menifee County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 36 feet and is 6.5 feet high.  View Geologic Map
3761 Indian Arch is located in Menifee County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 36 feet and is 6.5 feet high. 
3749 Looking west at ripe tobacco and high soybeans growing on gently rolling, rich agricultural land along KY-279 in Daviess County, Kentucky. These soils formed on glacial deposits mapped as Tazewell Outwash.  View Geologic Map
3748 Looking west at the long, level and straight CSX railroad from its crossing of US-60 at Stanley, KY in Daviess County. This rich agricultural plain is mapped as Carey Outwash on the geological quadrangle, a deposit of glacial origin.  View Geologic Map
3747 Looking across the Ohio River into Warsaw, KY in Gallatin County from Rt. 56, Switzerland Co. IN. Warsaw is build on a low Wisconsin glacial outwash terrace.  View Geologic Map
3746 Looking east at a thin Wisconsin loess (light zone about thre feet at top) from parking lot of Long Horn Steakhouse on Doering Drive, Florence, Boone County, KY.  View Geologic Map
3745 Bedrock  View Geologic Map
3744 Alluvium and Lacustrine sediments  View Geologic Map
3743 Organic Mat of a slough deposit  View Geologic Map
3742 Getting a soil core  View Geologic Map
3741 Organic rich lacustrine plain (dark) and Upland Loess (Light)  View Geologic Map
3740 Active gravel pit in Ballard County.  View Geologic Map
3739 Active gravel pit in Carlisle County. Pit wall is over 30 feet tall.   View Geologic Map
3738 Thick Quaternary loess deposit along Ky. 80 in Hickman County. The Mississippi River is in the background.  View Geologic Map
3737 Abandoned gravel pit in Calloway County  View Geologic Map
3736 fine-scale mottling in the Peoria Loess is likely the result of cryoturbation, which is a good indicator of extreme cold periods  View Geologic Map
3735 Gastropods weathering out of a Peoria Loess/Roxana silt exposure at the Rocks Loess Section (tip of paleopick for scale)  View Geologic Map
3733 scale card sits at the contact between the Peoria loess (tan unit) that overlies the pinkish brown Roxana silt.   View Geologic Map
3732 excavation exposure reveals nearly 10m of Peoria loess, which was deposited during the late Wisconsinan glacial advance  View Geologic Map
3731 Gravel deposit exposed along a road cut in Calloway County  View Geologic Map
3730 Slump on bank of Bank Lick Creek, off of Madison Pike (US 17)  View Geologic Map
3729 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Carrington Arch.  View Geologic Map
3728 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Yale Arch. 
3727 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Zilpo Arch. 
3725 Carrington Arch  View Geologic Map
3724 Carrington Arch is located in the Danial Boone National Forest in Bath County. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 44 feet and is 20 feet high.  View Geologic Map
3723 Yale Arch 
3722 Yale Arch 
3721 Zilpo Arch 
3716 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Hall Hollow Arch. 
3715 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Curd Garden Ridge Arch. 
3714 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for School House Arch. 
3713 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Phoenix Arch. 
3712 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Buzzard Creek Arch. 
3711 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Hollow Rock. 
3710 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Kentucky 25. 
3709 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Moonshiners Arch. 
3708 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Coon Den Arch 
3706 Buffalo Arch  View Geologic Map
3705 Buffalo Arch is located in the Daniel Boone National Forest in McCreary County. This arch has formed in the Grundy Formation (Breathitt Group), and has a span of 81 feet and is 22 feet high.  View Geologic Map
3700 Hall Hollow Arch 
3699 Hall Hollow Arch 
3698 Curd Garden Ridge Arch 
3697 Curd Garden Ridge Arch 
3695 School House Arch 
3694 School House Arch 
3693 Phoenix Arch 
3692 Buzzard Creek Arch 
3691 Hollow Rock 
3690 Hollow Rock 
3689 Kentucky 25 
3688 Moonshiners Arch 
3687 Moonshiners Arch 
3686 Slotted opening in the back of Coon Den Arch. 
3684 Coon Den Arch 
3682   View Geologic Map
3681 The 450-million-year-old Camp Nelson Limestone, the oldest rock exposed in Kentucky, is seen at the base of the Kentucky River Palisades in southern Fayette County. The Camp Nelson has been mined extensively for aggregate and agricultural lime.  View Geologic Map
3680 The Tanglewood Member of the Lexington Limestone may lie above or below the Millersburg Member. The Tanglewood contains minor shale. It is exposed here at mile 101.6 on Interstate 75.  View Geologic Map
3679 This exposure is near mile 98.0 on I-75 shows the Tyrone Limestone above the Oregon Formation, a calcareous dolomite. Limestone and dolomite for use as agricultural lime and crushed aggregate have been mined from the Oregon Formation and the lower part of the Tyrone Limestone.   View Geologic Map
3678 The Curdsville Limestone Member lies at the bottom of the Lexington Limestone, above the Tyrone Limestone. It is exposed near mile 98.6 on Interstate 75 in Fayette County.  View Geologic Map
3676 The limestone and shale of the Clays Ferry Formation (Ocf) is exposed along U.S. 25 across the river in Madison County.  View Geologic Map
3675 The Grier Limestone Member (Olg) of the Lower Lexington Limestone lies above the Curdsville Member. The Grier has a rubbly appearance. Water dissolves the limestone and creates underground flow channels. When the ceiling of a channel becomes too thin to support the overlying soil, a sinkhole is formed. This exposure is at mile 100.0 on I-75.   View Geologic Map
3674 The Tanglewood Limestone Member lies above the shalier Brannon Member of the Lexington Limestone seen along U.S. 25 just across the river in Madison County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
3673 The Garrard Siltstone (Og) lies above the Clays Ferry Formation (Ocf) and below the Calloway Creek Formation (Occ). It is shown here at mile 97.1 of Interstate 75 in Madison County.   View Geologic Map
3672 A good example of the thin-bedded limestone and shale in the Calloway Creek Limestone (Occ) is shown in this roadcut near mile 96.8 on I-75 in Madison County.  View Geologic Map
3671 The shaly Millersburg Member, which lies at the top of the Lexington Limestone, is exposed at the Athens-Boonesboro interchange on Interstate 75.  View Geologic Map
3670 The New Providence Shale Member of the Borden Formation (Mbnp), seen along Interstate 265 in Jefferson County, is a clay shale, silty, olive-gray to grayish-green, weathers yellowish gray to light greenish gray. Plastic when wet, tends to slide and slump.   View Geologic Map
3669 The Nancy Member of the Borden Formation (Mbn), seen along KY 841 in Jefferson County, is a silty shale, medium to olive-gray, weathers yellowish gray to light olive gray. Stands on steeper slopes and shows less tendency to slump than does the clay shale of the New Providence Member.  View Geologic Map
3667 The Hitz Limestone bed lies below the Brassfield and Osgood Formations (Sob) at this road cut on I-64. Limestone and dolomite in the Hitz are dark gray to olive gray. Pink calcite fills large fossil cavities. Gray clayey dolomite at the base of the Osgood Formation lies above limestone in the Brassfield Formation.  View Geologic Map
3666 Saluda Dolomite Member of the Drakes Formation (Ods) near along I-265. Very fine grained dark dolomite lies above greenish-gray, muddy, dolomite and limestone.  View Geologic Map
3665 The Laurel Dolomite, seen here along I-265, is composed 95 percent or more of gray dolomite with minor greenish-gray shale and sparse gray limestone.   View Geologic Map
3664 The Waldron Shale (Sw) lies between the Louisville Limestone (Slv), top, and Laurel Dolomite (Sl), bottom at the dolomite quarry near I-265.The Waldron Shale is composed of greenish-gray shale and minor gray dolomite probably atl least 95 percent is shale. The shale is dolomitic and weathers into a plastic clay.   View Geologic Map
3663 The Louisville Limestone, seen here along I-265, is mostly thin-bedded gray dolomitic limestone and gray calcitic dolomite, commonly in lumpy or irregular beds. Shale, in partings and very thin beds, constitutes a few percent, and very sparse chert is present in nodules and thin layers.   View Geologic Map
3661 KY 80, Floyd County, mile 10.7: Four Corners Formation (Pfc), sandstone, shale, siltstone. Contains the Magoffin Shale Member and the Hazard coal seams.  View Geologic Map
3660 KY 80, Floyd County, mile 12.9: Pikeville Formation (Ppk sandstone, shale, siltstone, Elkhorn coal beds).  View Geologic Map
3659 KY 80, Floyd County, mile 7.9: Pikeville Formation (Ppk), Elkhorn coal seams. Cedar trees on benches are evidence of calcareous rocks beneath.  View Geologic Map
3658 KY 80, Floyd County, mile 3.2: Pikeville Formation (Ppk Elkhorn coal beds, sandstone, shale at base).  View Geologic Map
3657 KY 80, Knott County, mile 17.2: Moisture seeps from the Kendrick Shale in the Hyden Formation (Ph) onto sandstone in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk) beneath.  View Geologic Map
3656 KY 80, Knott County, mile 14.8: Sandstone, shale, siltstone, and Hazard coal seams in the Four Corners Formation (Pfc)tower above the highway.  View Geologic Map
3655 KY 80, Knott County, mile 12.7: Sandstone over silty shale in the Four Corners Formation (Pfc).  View Geologic Map
3654 KY 80, Knott County, mile 12.1: Limestone concretions in silty shale of the Magoffin Member.  View Geologic Map
3653 KY 80, Knott County, mile 11.4: Four Corners Formation (Pfc sandstones, Hazard coal beds, and Magoffin Member at bottom).  View Geologic Map
3652 KY 80, Knott County, mile 1.4 Four Corners Formation (Pfc) above Hyden Formation (Ph)  View Geologic Map
3651 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 55.0: Four Corners Formation (Pfc) from top, sandstone, clay shale with limestone concretions and marine fossils, interbedded sandstone, shale, Hazard coal beds.  View Geologic Map
3650 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 54.5: Hyden Formation (Ph): sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
3649 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 51.0: Four Corners Formation (Pfc) Hazard No. 7, Francis, and Hindman coal beds, mined commercially.  View Geologic Map
3648 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 50.5: Four Corners Formation (Pfc): from top, sandstone, and interbedded claystone, Hazard coal beds, sandstone.  View Geologic Map
3647 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 48.6 Hyden Formation (Ph): sandstone and shale, coal, shale and siltstone.   View Geologic Map
3646 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 47.1: Hyden Formation (Ph) from the top, interbedded siltstone and shale, fire clay coal, shale, siltstone, sandstone.   View Geologic Map
3645 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 44.5: Sandstone concretion in the Kendrick Shale.  View Geologic Map
3644 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 39.3: Sandstone in the Hyden Formation (Ph).   View Geologic Map
3643 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 38.1: Sandstone caps the Kendrick Shale and the Amburgy Coal Zone in the Hyden Formation (Ph). Shale contains calcareous concretions.  View Geologic Map
3642 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 34.0: Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal bed in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
3641 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 32.2: Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
3640 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 29.5: Elkins Fork Shale and Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal bed in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
3638 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 28.6 Sandstone concretion in the Elkins Fork Shale of the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
3637 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 26.2: The Kendrick Shale Member at the base of the Hyden Formation (Ph) is capped by sandstone.  View Geologic Map
3636 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 25.1: Four Corners (Pfc), Hyden (Ph), and Pikeville (Ppk) Formations with fire clay and Whitesburg coal beds (Hyden) and Amburgy coal beds.  View Geologic Map
3635 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 19.9: Pikeville Formation (Ppk), from top silty shale, sandstone, silty shale, clay shale, blue gem coal), silty shale, sandstone, silty shale.  View Geologic Map
3634 Hal Rogers Parkway, ,mile 16.6 Fissile shale in the Pikeville Formation weathers to thin flakes.  View Geologic Map
3633 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 14.9: Corbin Sandstone Member of the Grundy Formation (Pgc).  View Geologic Map
3632 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 12.4: Pikeville Formation (Ppk), from top silty shale, Jellico coal, silty shale, contains concretions, crossbedded sandstone, Blue Gem coal, silty shale.  View Geologic Map
3631 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 11.6: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) lenticular sandstone beds in shale.  View Geologic Map
3629 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 10.6: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) crossbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
3628 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 9.8: Pikeville Formation (Ppk): crossbedded sandstone.  View Geologic Map
3627 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 7.9: Pikeville Formation (Ppk), from top sandstone, shale, sandstone, coal, shale, Blue Gem (bg) coal, one of the most important coals because of its high quality.  View Geologic Map
3626 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 5.7: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) with commercially mined Blue Gem (bg) coal and pine cone-loving goat.  View Geologic Map
3625 Hal Rogers Parkway, Mile 4.8: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) sandstone over shale.  View Geologic Map
3624 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 0.3 Sandstone over shale in the Pikeville Formation behind The Iron Peddlers from the highway.  View Geologic Map
3623 Hal Rogers Parkway, mile 0.1: Pikeville Formation (Ppk): shale, thin sandstone.  View Geologic Map
3621 KY 80, Laurel County, mile 1.0: Pine Creek Sandstone in the Grundy Formation (Pg).  View Geologic Map
3619 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 39.9: Sandstone, coal, and shale in the Grundy Formation (Pg) lie atop the Rockcastle Sandstone Member of the Bee Rock Formation (Pbrr).  View Geologic Map
3618 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 38.6: Shale, sandstone, coal, and shale in the Pennsylvanian Grundy Formation (Pg).  View Geologic Map
3617 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 37.5: Sandstone, shale, and coal in the Pennsylvanian Alvy Creek (Pac) Formation.  View Geologic Map
3616 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 37.0: Sandstone over shale in the Pennsylvanian Grundy Formation (Pg).  View Geologic Map
3615 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 33.2: Upper Slade Formation (Mslu): top to bottom, Bangor Limestone (Mbg), Hartselle Formation (Mhs), Kidder Limestone Member (Mmk).  View Geologic Map
3614 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 32.2 Kidder Limestone Member (Mmk) of the upper Slade Formation (Mslu).  View Geologic Map
3613 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 31.4: Ste. Genevieve Limestone Member (Mmg)of the Monteagle Limestone.  View Geologic Map
3612 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 27.2: Ste. Genevieve Limestone Member (Mmg) of the Monteagle Limestone. The Ste. Genevieve is widely quarried for construction aggregate and agricultural lime.  View Geologic Map
3611 KY 80, Pulaski County, mile 23.9: Monteagle Limestone (Mm).  View Geologic Map
3610 KY 80 bypass, Pulaski County, mile 1.3: Reservoir Knob and abandoned Colyer Quarry. The Monteagle Limestone (Mm). Pennsylvanian sandstone rests unconformably on the Monteagle.  View Geologic Map
3609 Nunn Parkway, mile 84.7: Mississippian Borden Formation (Mb shale and siltstone), Muldraugh Member (Mbm siltstone), at top.  View Geologic Map
3608 Nunn Parkway, mile 83.3-84.1: Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw limestone and shale) over Muldraugh Member (Mbm siltstone) of the Borden Formation.  View Geologic Map
3607 Nunn Parkway, mile 77.3: Lower St. Louis Limestone (Msl): dolomite, limestone, and quartz nodular zone.  View Geologic Map
3606 Nunn Parkway, mile 75.5, 76.0-76.1: Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw): shale and limestone. Groundwater encountering shale emerges from the cut.  View Geologic Map
3605 Nunn Parkway, mile 73.6: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): dolomitic siltstone with tongues of granular limestone and scattered geodes more clayey downward, burrows common.  View Geologic Map
3604 Nunn Parkway, mile: 72.5-72.9: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): siltstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
3603 The Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw) in eastern Russell County provide soils and level land for agriculture and homes.  View Geologic Map
3602 Nunn Parkway, mile 63.6: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): clayey, dolomitic siltstone and shale with small geodes.  View Geologic Map
3601 Devonian Sellersburg and Jeffersonville Limestone (Dsj) near the intersection of U.S. 42 and Hwy. 841 in Jefferson County.  View Geologic Map
3600 Nunn Parkway, mile 58.8: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): dolomitic siltstone or silty dolomite, in part slightly clayey, small geodes, thin disc lenses of granular limestone. Mapped as the Knifley Sandstone Member (Mfk).  View Geologic Map
3599 Nunn Parkway, mile 55.3 Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): dolomitic siltstone with lenses of chert, granular limestone,and scattered geodes.  View Geologic Map
3598 Nunn Parkway, mile 48.8: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): silty dolomite with scattered geodes.  View Geologic Map
3597 Nunn Parkway, mile 45.0: Reef Limestone (rl) of the Fort Payne Formation (Mfp).  View Geologic Map
3596 Quartz geodes in the dolomitic siltstone of the Fort Payne Formation along the Louie B. Nunn Cumberland Parkway, mile 41.6, in Adair County.  View Geologic Map
3595 Nunn Parkway, mile 41.6: Reef limestone (rl) over dolomitic silstone in the Fort Payne (Mfp) Formation.  View Geologic Map
3594 Nunn Parkway, mile 41.2: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): reef limestone (rl) above dolomitic siltstone.  View Geologic Map
3593 Nunn Parkway, mile 28.7 Cavities remain where geodes were once embedded.  View Geologic Map
3592 Nunn Parkway, mile 39.4: The reef limestone above dolomitic siltstone in the Fort Payne Formation (Mfp).  View Geologic Map
3591 Nunn Parkway, mile 38.8: Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw): dolomitic siltstone.  View Geologic Map
3590 Nunn Parkway, mile 33.1: Salem and Warsaw Limestone (Msw): dolomitic siltstone.  View Geologic Map
3589 Nunn Parkway, mile 28.7: Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw): limestone and dolomitic siltstone.  View Geologic Map
3588 Nunn Parkway, mile 28.5: Limestone in the Salem and Warsaw Limestone (Msw): granular limestone overlies deeply weathered zone of dolomitic silstone in the middle of cut.  View Geologic Map
3587 Nunn Parkway, mile 26.7: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): dolomitic siltstone with small geodes.  View Geologic Map
3586 Nunn Parkway, mile 25.6: Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw): dolomitic siltstone, in part shaly with small geodes.  View Geologic Map
3585 Nunn Parkway, mile 16.0–22.8: The St. Louis Limestone provides rolling to level terrain for home sites and soils for agriculture.  View Geologic Map
3584 Nunn Parkway, mile 14.5: Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw): dolomitic siltstone.  View Geologic Map
3583 Nunn Parkway, mile 13.2: St. Louis Limestone (Msl): cherty limestone.  View Geologic Map
3581 Nunn Parkway, mile 11.9: Fort Payne Formation (Mfp): limestone and siltstone.  View Geologic Map
3580 Nunn Parkway, mile 7.7: Salem and Warsaw Limestones (Msw): limestone.  View Geologic Map
3579 Interstate 64, mile 187.6: Sandstone above thick shale bed in the Conemaugh Formation (Pc).  View Geologic Map
3578 Interstate 64, mile 186.3: Conemaugh Formation (Pc): sandstone, siltstone, limestone.  View Geologic Map
3577 Interstate 64, mile 181.1: Princess Formation (Ppr) with Princess Nos. 5 (P5), 6 (P6), and 7 (P7) coal beds.  View Geologic Map
3576 Interstate 64, mile 178.7: Princess Formation (Ppr): sandstone, siltstone, shale, with Princess No. 7 coal bed (P7).  View Geologic Map
3575 Interstate 64, mile 176.4: Princess Formation (Ppr sandstone, siltstone, shale, No. 5, No. 7 coal).  View Geologic Map
3574 Interstate 64, mile 174.8 Princess Formation (Ppr) with No. 5 coal bed.  View Geologic Map
3573 Interstate 64, mile 174.8: Princess Formation (Ppr sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal). Red seepage of iron oxide at thin coal seams.  View Geologic Map
3572 Interstate 64, mile 174.4: Middle Breathitt Formation (Pbm). Shale, largely carbonaceous, dark gray to black, ironstone concretions.  View Geologic Map
3571 Interstate 64, mile 172.8 Middle Breathitt Formation (Pbm sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal).  View Geologic Map
3570 Interstate 64, mile 166.0: Pikeville Formation (Ppk sandstone, shale, coal).  View Geologic Map
3569 Interstate 64, mile 162.1: Shale layer in the Pennsylvanian Hyden Formation (Ph).  View Geologic Map
3568 Interstate 64, mile 158.8: Limestone of the Mississippian Slade Formation (Msla).  View Geologic Map
3567 Interstate 64, mile 157.4: Limestone and shale of the Slade Formation (Msla) over siltstone and shale of the Cowbell Member of the Borden Formation (Mbc).  View Geologic Map
3566 Interstate 64, mile 153.3: Sandstone over shale in the Pennsylvanian Grundy Formation (Pg).  View Geologic Map
3565 Interstate 64, mile 152.3, 153.5: Dark-gray shale with sandstone lenses in the Pennsylvanian Grundy Formation (Pg).  View Geologic Map
3562 Interstate 64, mile 151.0: Contact between Grundy Formation (Pg) and the Renfro Member of the Slade Formation and Nada Member of the Borden Formation (Mbrn).  View Geologic Map
3561 Interstate 64, mile 148.6: Shaly sandstone in the Grundy Formation (Pg).  View Geologic Map
3560 Interstate 64, mile 147.0, 147.6: Mississippian Slade Formation (Msla). White limestone caps other limestone units.  View Geologic Map
3559 Interstate 64, mile 146.0–146.4, 147.5: Cherty limestone of the Slade Formation (Msla), orange-weathering dolomite of the Renfro Member of the Slade Formation and interbedded varicolored shale and limestone of the Nada Member of the Borden Formation (Mbrn).   View Geologic Map
3558 Interstate, mile 143.8–145.5: Siltstone and shale in the Cowbell Member of the Borden Formation (Mbc).  View Geologic Map
3557 Interstate 64, mile 138.8: Interbedded sandstone and shale of the Farmers Member of the Borden Formation (Mbf) is quarried as building stone.   View Geologic Map
3556 Interstate 64, mile 135.4: Greenish gray shale of the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation (Mbn) has potential for use in manufacturing drain and structural tiles may contain ironstone concretions.   View Geologic Map
3555 Interstate 64, mile 133.3, 134.1: Greenish-gray shale of the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation (Mbn).  View Geologic Map
3554 Interstate 64, mile 132.5–132.9: Contact between interbedded sandstone and shale of the Farmers Member of the Borden Formation (Mbf) black, carbonaceous Sunbury Shale (Msu) and greenish-gray Bedford Shale (MDbd).  View Geologic Map
3553 Interstate 64, mile 130.3: Devonian black, carbonaceous Ohio Shale (Do) lies unconformably above green shale of the Silurian Estill Shale of the Crab Orchard Group (Se). The missing Middle and Lower Devonian and Upper Silurian units, which are present in the subsurface in other parts of Kentucky, represent an interval of about 30 million years.  View Geologic Map
3552 Interstate 64, mile 126.2: Green and red Silurian Alger Shale (Sa) is unstable on slopes unless protected by vegetation.  View Geologic Map
3551 Interstate 64, mile 122.2: Greenish-gray shale and shaly dolomite of the Preachersville Member of the Drakes Formation (Odp).  View Geologic Map
3550 Interstate 64, mile 119.4: Devonian Boyle Dolomite (Db), 400 million years old.  View Geologic Map
3549 Interstate 64, mile 119.1, 120.8: Contact between, in descending order, greenish-gray (grassed) Alger Shale (Sa), gray fossiliferous dolomite interbedded with greenish-gray clay shale in the Drowning Creek Formation (Sd), and greenish-gray shale of the Preachersville Member of the Drakes Formation (Odp).  View Geologic Map
3548 Interstate 64, mile 118.5: Sunset Member of the Bull Fork Formation (Obs) over the upper member of the Grant Lake Limestone (Oglu).  View Geologic Map
3547 Interstate 64, mile 117.1: Fault in the Bull Fork Formation (Ob).  View Geologic Map
3546 Interstate 64, mile 110.2, 111.0, 111.8: Greenish-gray silty limestone and shale of the Tate Member of the Ashlock Formation (Oat) over interbedded limestone and shale (limestone dominant) of the upper part of the Calloway Creek Limestone (Occu).  View Geologic Map
3545 Interstate 64, mile 108.0: Lower part of the Calloway Creek Limestone (Occl).  View Geologic Map
3544 Interstate 64, mile 104.0, 104.2: Calloway Creek Limestone (Occ) over Garrard Siltstone (Og).   View Geologic Map
3543 Interstate 64, mile 100.8: Kope and Clays Ferry Formation (Okc) over the upper part of the Lexington Limestone (Olu).  View Geologic Map
3542 Interstate 64, mile 98.3, 99.6, 101.3, 102.0: Clays Ferry Formation Ocf): interbedded limestone and shale. Contains distinctive brachiopod (Sowerbyella) in the lower part.  View Geologic Map
3540 Upper part of the Lexington Limestone (Olu) at mile 95.5 on Interstate 64 in Clark County.  View Geologic Map
3539  
3538 Looking at the Mississippian New Providence Shale from the Consaga Parkway near Shepardsville.  View Geologic Map
3537 Looking downstream at Drennon Creek at low flow from its ford at Delville.   View Geologic Map
3536 Looking north at the deformed and faulted sandstone dike in the Devonian Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, on the AA highway just east of Vanceburg.  View Geologic Map
3535 The contact between the base of the Upper Devonian Huron Member of the Ohio Shale and the Lower Silurian Crab Orchard Shale on I-64 between Exits 123 and 132.   View Geologic Map
3534 Looking south at the wide open valley of Drennon Creek, a tributary to the Kentucky River.  View Geologic Map
3533 A view of Silurian topography looking north in front of Gethsemani Monestary.  View Geologic Map
3531 The wide valley of the Little Sulpher Creek, a tributary of the Cumberland River.  View Geologic Map
3530 A spectacular downlap of Pennsylvanian sandstone into a shale on US 27 near mile 17.  View Geologic Map
3529 A spectacular downlap of Pennsylvanian sandstone into a shale on US 27 near mile 17.  View Geologic Map
3528 Looking southeast at Ordovician limestone from the bridge of the CSX Railroad near Winchester. 
3526 Looking Northwest at canyons eroded into Pennsylvanian sandstone from the Dry Creek Overlook on KY 927 in the Daniel Boone National Forest.   View Geologic Map
3525 Looking northeast at a massive sandstone bluff of the Pennsylvanian Grundy Formation at Cumberland Falls from the east end of the KY 90 bridge.   View Geologic Map
3524 Looking at the Upper Ordovician Lexington Limestone from the new exit road from the west lane of I-64 at Winchester.   View Geologic Map
3523 A large, thin planar cross bed at Cumberland Falls State Park near the bridge of Ky 90. Is this large, thin unit dipping eastward or an unusual antidune? 
3522 Looking at a cut made for the Norfolk Southern RR from the bridge on Wiborg Loop Road.  View Geologic Map
3520 Multiple, recumbent chert layers in a deformed zone of the Mississippian lower member of the St. Louis and Salem limestones along the Cumberland River at Dycusburg.   View Geologic Map
3519 Looking at the Mississippian limestones exposed at Paddys Bluff along the Cumberland River about 1.8 miles south of Dycusburg.   View Geologic Map
3517 Mississippian carbonates in the lower member of the St. Louis and Salem Limestones along the Cumberland River at Paddys Bluff about 1.8 miles south of Dycusburg.   View Geologic Map
3516 Looking north up the best exposed part of the Mississippian lower member of the St. Louis and Salem limestones at Paddys Bluff. Note the thick beds at the top of the photograph and the geologist for scale. See Counts et al. (2009) for more details.   View Geologic Map
3515 Well developed, solution enlarged fractures in the lower member of the Mississippian limestones at Paddy''s Bluff on the Cumberland River about 1.8 miles south of Dycusburg. The orientation of these joints parallels the orientation of nearby faults striking N40 to 45 degrees east. See Counts et al. (2009) for more details.   View Geologic Map
3514 Isolated, broken and overturned lithostrotional corals are part of a widespread Mississippian coral zone. This coral zone is well exposed for over 1000 feet at low water of the Cumberland River. See Counts et al. (2009) for more details.   View Geologic Map
3513 Isolated, broken and overturned lithostrotional corals are part of a widespread Mississippian coral zone. This coral zone is well exposed for over 1000 feet at low water of the Cumberland River. See Counts et al. (2009) for more details.   View Geologic Map
3512 Isolated, broken and overturned lithostrotational corals are part of a widespread Mississippian coral zone. This coral zone is well exposed for over 1000 feet at low water of the Cumberland River.   View Geologic Map
3511 Looking north down the Muldraugh Escarpment from US 21 on Big Hill just west of the Madison/Estill County line.  View Geologic Map
3510 Looking North at the valley of Camp Branch near Taylorsville. Camp Branch often floods the highway.   View Geologic Map
3509 Looking south at a hillside of mostly the Kope Formation southeast of Augusta.   View Geologic Map
3508 Looking east from dock at Axe Lake off Sallie Crice Road.  View Geologic Map
3507 Looking east along the axis of English Lake from the small concrete ramp on its west side. This lake occupies a swale in the Holocene swale and sag topography. The lake is near the Ohio River, close to its junction with the Mississippi River. Access is from Salle Crice Road.  View Geologic Map
3505 Looking north from acess road of the Ballard Country Sportsmen''s Club on Axe Lake into a cypress swamp.  View Geologic Map
3504 Looking northeast at the shelly limestones of the Grant Lake Formation at the junction of KY 55 and KY 1633. This outcrop is particularly rich in fossils and has a parking space.  View Geologic Map
3503 Looking southwest at details on the Ordovician Grant Lake Limeston.  View Geologic Map
3502 Looking southwest at the (Ordovician) Grant Lake Limestone on Hwy 111 in eastern Bath County, KY.  
3500 The abandoned high wall of the Marion Limestone and Asphalt Quarry of the Rogers Group adjacent to US 60. About six miles northeast of Marian, Crittenden Co., Ky. The section starts with the Lower Kinkaid Limestone at the base followed by shales of the Clore Formation capped by basal Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales of the Caseyville Formation.   View Geologic Map
3499 Looking west at the lower Mississippian Nancy Shale from Tygarts Creek Road, just south of Frost, Greenup Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
3498 One of the best carbonate sections in all of the Licking River watershed.  View Geologic Map
3497 Looking southwest at a large cut of a meander of Slate Creek, north of Slate Valley, northwestern Bath County. This is one of the best carbonate sections in the Licking River Watershed with stratigraphic units ranging from the Grant Lake Limestone (Ordovician) to the lower part of the Crab Orchard Formation (Silurian).  View Geologic Map
3496 Looking southwest at the outcrop of the Clays Ferry Formation exposed along KY 32 just south of its bridge over the Licking River.  View Geologic Map
3495 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Shangra La.  View Geologic Map
3493 Cascade Bridge  View Geologic Map
3492 Bat Cave Arch  View Geologic Map
3491 Bat Cave Arch  View Geologic Map
3490 Natural Bridge.  View Geologic Map
3489 Smoky Bridge  View Geologic Map
3488 Smoky Bridge is located in Carter County at Carter Caves State Park. This arch has formed in the Slade Formation (Newman Limestone).   View Geologic Map
3487 Unnamed arch near Shangra La.  View Geologic Map
3486 Unnamed arch near Shangra La.  View Geologic Map
3485 Shangra La.  View Geologic Map
3484 Shangra La.  View Geologic Map
3482 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Barn Cave Arch. 
3481 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Donathan Rock Arch. 
3480 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Kentucky 121. 
3479 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Stock Pen Arch. 
3478 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Eagle Arch. 
3477 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Slade Cow Cave and Slade Sentinel Arches. 
3476 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Edwards Branch Arch. 
3475 Barn Cave Arch. 
3474 Barn Cave Arch. 
3473 Barn Cave Arch. 
3471 Donathan Pillar Arch. 
3470 Donathan Rock Arch. 
3469 Kentucky 121. 
3468 Kentucky 121. 
3467 Stock Pen Arch. 
3466 Stock Pen Arch. 
3464 Eagle Arch. 
3463 Eagle Arch. 
3462 Slade Sentinel Arch 
3461 One of the pillar arches associated with Slade Cow Cave. 
3460 One of two pillar arches associated with Slade Cow Cave. 
3459 Edwards Branch Arch. 
3458 Edwards Branch Arch. 
3455 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Trap Door Arch.  View Geologic Map
3454 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Little Log Arch. 
3453 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Cold Spring Fork Pillar. 
3452 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Back Door Arch. 
3451 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Furnace Arch. 
3450 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Moonshiners Arch.  View Geologic Map
3449 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Osborne Bend Arch.  View Geologic Map
3448 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Unicorn Arch.  View Geologic Map
3446 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Arch of Triumph. 
3445 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Eholia Arch. 
3444 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Clear Branch Arch. 
3442 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Rock Bridge Peepsite. 
3441 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Lake Arch. 
3440 Rose diagram showing joint orientation at Log Arch. 
3439 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Little Cow Cave Window. 
3438 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Cow Cave Arch. 
3437 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Keystone Arch. 
3436 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Shelter Pillar Arch #2. 
3435 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Ranch Arch. 
3434 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Kettle Arch. 
3433 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Sunset Arch. 
3432 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Wildcat Windows. 
3431 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Colombine Tube. 
3430 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Timmons Arch. 
3428 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Frontier Arch. 
3427 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Rogers Chapel Arch. 
3426 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Grants Arch. 
3425 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Flat Iron Arch. 
3424 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Rough Trail Pillar.  View Geologic Map
3423 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Rough Trail Alcove. 
3422 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Hole in the Wall. 
3421 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Shelter Arch #2. 
3420 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Shelter Pillar. 
3419 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Kentucky 76. 
3418 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Dunkan-Wolfpen Arch. 
3417 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Rango Arch. 
3415 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Wett Arch. 
3414 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Chimney Top Arch. 
3413 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Adena Window. 
3412 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Horseshoe Arch. 
3411 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Kentucky 80. 
3410 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Red Byrd Arch. 
3409 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Adena Arch.  View Geologic Map
3408 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Shawnee Arch. 
3407 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Trinity Arch. 
3406 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Spratt Arch. 
3405 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Devils Market House.  View Geologic Map
3404 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Sheltowee Twin Windows.  View Geologic Map
3403 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Cloud Splitter Arch. 
3402 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Sheltowee Windows.  View Geologic Map
3400 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Dog Fork Arch. 
3399 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at South Fork Branch Arch. 
3398 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Daniel Arch #2. 
3397 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Daniel Arch #1. 
3396 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Neos Arch. 
3395 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Powder Mill Arch. 
3393 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Laurel Branch Lost Camp Arch. 
3392 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Laurel Branch Half Bridge. 
3391 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Laurel Branch Double Arch. 
3390 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Laurel Branch Arch #2. 
3389 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Laurel Branch Windows and Shelf arches. 
3388 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Copperas Creek Pillar. 
3387 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Double Deer Arch. 
3386 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Snow Arch. 
3385 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Hopewell Arch. 
3383 Trap Door Arch.  View Geologic Map
3382 Trap Door Arch.  View Geologic Map
3381 Trap Door Arch.  View Geologic Map
3380 Little Log Arch. 
3379 Little Log Arch. 
3378 Underworld Window. 
3377 Cold Spring Fork Pillar. 
3376 Cold Spring Fork Pillar 
3375 Back Door Arch 
3374 Back Door Arch 
3373 Tree Trunk Arch. 
3372 Furnace Arch. 
3371 Moonshiners Arch  View Geologic Map
3370 Moonshiners Arch is located in Menifee County in the Clifty Wilderness Area. This arch has formed in the Slade Formation (Newman Limestone), and has a span of 55 feet and is 18 feet high.  View Geologic Map
3369 Moonshiners Arch.  View Geologic Map
3368 Osborne Bend Arch.  View Geologic Map
3367 Osborne Bend Arch.  View Geologic Map
3366 Unicorn Arch. Also known as Hemlock Arch.  View Geologic Map
3364 Arch of Triumph 
3363 Arch of Triumph 
3362 Eholia Arch 
3361 Eholia Arch 
3360 Anvil Arch. 
3359 Anvil Arch. 
3358 Clear Branch Arch. 
3357 Clear Branch Arch. 
3356 Rock Bridge Peepsite. 
3355 Rock Bridge Peepsite. 
3353 Lake Arch 
3352 Lake Arch. 
3351 Log Arch. 
3350 Log Arch. 
3349 Little Cow Cave Window 
3348 Cow Cave Arch. 
3347 Cow Cave Arch. 
3346 Keystone Arch 
3345 Keystone Arch 
3344 Shelter Pillar Arch #2. 
3343 Ranch Arch. 
3342 Kettle Arch. 
3341 Kettle Arch 
3339 Sunset Arch. 
3338 Sunset Arch. 
3337 Wildcat Windows 
3336 Colombine Tube 
3335 Timmons Arch. 
3334 Timmons Arch. 
3333 Frontier Arch. 
3332 Frontier Arch. 
3331 Rogers Chapel Arch 
3330 Grants Arch 
3329 Grants Arch 
3328 Flat Iron Arch 
3326 Rough Trail Window  View Geologic Map
3325 Rough Trail Pillar  View Geologic Map
3324 Rough Trail Alcove 
3323 Rough Trail Alcove 
3321 Little Princess Arch  View Geologic Map
3320 Chimney Top Pillar 
3318 Hole in the Wall 
3317 Hole in the Wall 
3316 Hole in the Wall 
3315 Shelter Arch #2 
3314 Shelter Pillar 
3312 Kentucky 76 
3311 Dunkan-Wolfpen Arch. 
3310 Rango Arch. 
3309 Chimney Top Window 
3308 Wett Arch 
3307 Wett Arch 
3306 Chimney Top Arch 
3305 Chimney Top Arch 
3304 Adena Window 
3301 Horseshoe Arch 
3300 Horseshoe Arch 
3299 Horseshoe Arch. 
3298 Horseshoe Arch 
3297 Kentucky 80 
3296 Kentucky 80. 
3295 Red Byrd Peepsite 
3294 Red Byrd Shelf 
3293 Red Byrd Arch. 
3292 Red Byrd Arch. 
3290 Adena Arch.  View Geologic Map
3289 Adena Arch.  View Geologic Map
3288 The Real Trinity Arch. 
3287 The Real Trinity Arch. 
3286 The Real Trinity Arch. 
3285 Shawnee Arch. 
3284 Trinity Arch. 
3283 Trinity Arch. 
3281 Lost and Found Arch. 
3280 Spratt Arch. 
3279 Devils Market House is a natural arch located in Menifee County in the Daniel Boone National Forest. This colorful arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 6 feet and is 6 feet high.  View Geologic Map
3278 Devil''s Market House.  View Geologic Map
3277 Sheltowee Twin Windows.  View Geologic Map
3276 Cloud Splitter Arch 
3275 Sheltowee Shelf Arch  View Geologic Map
3274 Sheltowee Double Shelf Arch.  View Geologic Map
3273 Sheltowee Double Shelf Arch  View Geologic Map
3272 Sheltowee Windows.  View Geologic Map
3271 Sheltowee Windows.  View Geologic Map
3270 Sheltowee Windows  View Geologic Map
3269 Dog Fork Arch. 
3267 South Fork Branch Arch. 
3266 South Fork Branch Arch. 
3265 Daniel Arch #2. 
3264 Daniel Arch #2. 
3263 Daniel Arch #2. 
3262 Daniel Arch #1. 
3261 Limestone Arch. 
3260 Neos Arch. 
3259 Neos Arch. 
3258 Wolf Pen Arch. 
3257 Powder Mill Arch.33 
3255 Laurel Branch Lost Camp Arch. 
3254 Laurel Branch Lost Camp Arch. 
3253 Laurel Branch Half Bridge. 
3252 Laurel Branch Half Bridge. 
3251 Laurel Branch Double Arch. 
3250 Laurel Branch Arch #2. 
3248 Largest pillar arch of the Laurel Branch Windows. 
3247 Laurel Branch Windows. 
3246 Laurel Branch Shelf Arch 
3245 Copperas Creek Pillar 
3244 Copperas Creek Pillar. 
3243 Double Deer Arch. 
3242 Double Deer Arch. 
3241 Snow Arch. 
3240 Snow Arch. 
3237 Hopewell Arch. 
3235 Hopewell Arch 
3232 Coal bed in Pikeville Formation along US-119 east of Meta, KY.  View Geologic Map
3231 Large gutter cast with sole marks on its sides in Ordovician Fairview Formation along US-62/68 near Maysville, KY.  View Geologic Map
3230 Pennsylvanian coal bed in roadcut along US-119 near Meta, KY. Note the light-colored shale below coal bed that derives from soil-forming processes in contrast to the darker, more organic rich bayfill shale above it.  View Geologic Map
3229 Large roadcuts primarily in Hyden Formation along access road to US-119 near Sydney, KY. Note the notch excavated to haul rock from the construction to fill areas behind the cuts.  View Geologic Map
3228 Thin coals in the Pikeville Formation along access road adjacent to US-119 near Sydney, KY. Note the uniform base of overlying sandstone with little erosion, indicating the resilient nature of the peat precurser.   View Geologic Map
3227 Weathering and fractures in Pikeville Formation roadcut along US-119 near Meta, KY. Note how the concretion layer is not displaced.  View Geologic Map
3226 Fracture face exposed in roadcut of Mississippian Borden Formation on KY-519 near Morehead, KY. Because the fracture parallels the road, removal of material between the fracture and the original face of the cut minimizes failure of large blocks and increases stability.  View Geologic Map
3225 Sandstones and shales of the Pikeville Formation in large roadcut along new US-119 at milepoint 5.  View Geologic Map
3224 Walcott (White) Covered Bridge over Locust Creek built in 1824 near the intersection of the AA Highway and KY-1159 near Brooksville, KY.  View Geologic Map
3223 View of low terrace along the Licking River from Quail Run Rd. (off KY-609)southeast of Butler, KY. Hills in background are shales of Kope and Clays Ferry Formations.  View Geologic Map
3222 Looking up the valley of Johns Creek from the Marathon Station on KY 632 at Kimper in Pike County, KY.  View Geologic Map
3220 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Sargent Branch Double Arch. 
3219 Sargent Branch Double Arch 
3218 Sargent Branch Double Arch. 
3216 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Crawling Man Arch. 
3215 Crawling Man Arch 
3214 Crawling Man Arch. 
3212 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Schoolhouse Branch Arch. 
3211 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Nada Tunnel Arch.  View Geologic Map
3210 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Martin Fork Window and Arch. 
3209 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Martin Fork Window and Arch 
3207 Schoolhouse Branch Arch 
3206 Schoolhouse Branch Arch. 
3205 Nada Tunnel Arch  View Geologic Map
3204 Martin Fork Arch. 
3203 Martin Fork Window.  
3201 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Sandy Arch. 
3200 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Copperas Creek Arches 2, 3, and 4. 
3199 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Copperas Creek Arches 2, 3, and 4. 
3198 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Copperas Creek Arches 2, 3, and 4. 
3197 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Copperas Creek Arch_1. 
3195 Sandy Arch is a natural bridge. 
3194 Sandy Arch is a natural bridge. 
3193 Copperas Creek Arch_4. 
3192 Copperas Creek Arch_4. 
3191 Copperas Creek Arch_3. 
3190 Copperas Creek Arch_3. 
3188 Copperas Creek Arch_2. 
3187 Copperas Creek Arch_2. 
3186 Copperas Creek Arch_1 maybe a false arch. This arch appears to have formed due to slippage along a fracture plane (joint). 
3185 Copperas Creek Arch_1 maybe a false arch. This arch appears to have formed due to slippage along a fracture plane (joint). 
3184 Copperas Creek Arch_1 maybe a false arch. This arch appears to have formed due to slippage along a fracture plane (joint). 
3179 Crawlaway Arch 
3178 Scanner Window 
3177 Arcade Window 
3175 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Baldrock Bridge.  View Geologic Map
3174 Baldrock Bridge.  View Geologic Map
3173 Baldrock Bridge.  View Geologic Map
3172 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at unnamed arch #3. 
3171 Unnamed arch #3. 
3170 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Ike Branch Arches. 
3169 Smallest of the Ike Branch Arches. 
3168 Second largest arch of the Ike Branch Arches. 
3167 Largest arch of the Ike Branch Arches. 
3166 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at unnamed arch_2 
3165 Unnamed arch #2. 
3164 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at unnamed arch #1. 
3163 Unnamed arch #1. 
3158 test  View Geologic Map
3141 Rose diagram showing joint orientation at Furnace Pillar Arches 
3140 Furnace Pillar Arch_2 
3139 Furnace Pillar Arch_1 
3138 Furnace Pillar Arch_1 
3137 Spore Arch 
3135 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Mushroom Arch 
3134 Mushroom Arch 
3133 Mushroom Arch 
3132 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Rat Window_4 
3131 Rat Window_4 
3130 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Rat Window_3 
3129 Rat Window_3 
3128 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Rat Window_1 
3127 Rat Window_1 
3125 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Blue Spring Arch. 
3124 Blue Spring Arch in Mammoth Cave National Park. 
3123 Blue Spring Arch in Mammoth Cave National Park. 
3122 Blue Spring Arch in Mammoth Cave National Park. 
3121 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at unnamed arch in Mammoth Cave National Park. 
3120 unnamed arch in Mammoth Cave National Park. 
3119 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Houchins Ferry Bridge. 
3118 Houchins Ferry Bridge. 
3115 Houchins Ferry Bridge. 
3112 Remediation of a landslide in the Borden Formation along the Bluegrass Parkway in Hardin County.  View Geologic Map
3111 Joints in roadcut along Bluegrass Parkway.  View Geologic Map
3110 Joints in roadcut along Bluegrass Parkway.  View Geologic Map
3109 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for roadcut along Bluegrass Parkway.  View Geologic Map
3107 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Log Rock in Kingdom Come State Park.  View Geologic Map
3106 Log Rock in Kingdom Come State Park.  View Geologic Map
3105 Log Rock in Kingdom Come State Park.  View Geologic Map
3104 Read the signs and beware of bears at Kingdom Come State Park!  View Geologic Map
3102 Devil's Cornhole is a small natural arch located near Devil's Pulpit and Devil's Minion 
3101 Devil's Minion is a small natural arch located near Devil's Pulpit. 
3100 Devil's Minion is a small natural arch located near Devil's Pulpit. 
3099 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Devil's Pulpit. 
3098 Devil's Pulpit is a natural arch that has formed in the Camp Nelson Limestone. 
3097 Devil's Pulpit is a natural arch that has formed in the Camp Nelson Limestone. 
3096 Devils Pulpit is a natural arch that has formed along the Kentucky River in Jessamine County. This arch has formed in the Camp Nelson Limestone, and has a span of 12 feet and is 42 feet high. 
3095 Dix Dam Arch 
3094 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Dix Dam Arch. 
3093 Rose diagram showing joint orientations in limestone at the confluence of the Dix and Kentucky Rivers.  View Geologic Map
3092 Rose diagram showing joint orientations in limestone at the confluence of the Dix and Kentucky Rivers. 
3091 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at the Cummins Ferry Arches 
3090 Cummins Ferry Arch_south 
3089 Cummins Ferry Arch_south 
3088 Cummins Ferry Arch_north 
3087 Cummins Ferry Arch_north 
3086 The Creelsboro Arch (aka Rock House Natural Bridge)  View Geologic Map
3085 View west along Jim Creek from the bank of the Cumberland River through the Creelsboro Arch.   View Geologic Map
3084 Moore Dr at KY-1669, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3083 Moore Dr at KY-1669, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3082 Moore Dr at KY-1669, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3081 Moore Dr at KY-1669, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3080 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3079 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3078 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3077 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3076 KY-676 at Collins Lane, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3075 KY-676 at Collins Lane, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3074 KY-676 at Collins Lane, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3073 KY-676 at Collins Lane, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3072 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3071 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3070 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3069 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3068 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3067 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3066 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3065 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3064 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3063 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3062 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3061 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3060 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3059 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3058 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3057 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3056 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3055 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3054 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3053 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3052 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3051 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3050 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3049 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3048 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3047 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3046 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3045 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3044 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3043 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3042 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3041 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3040 Hwy 127, Franklin County, stromatoporoid lag bed in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3039 Hwy 127, Franklin County, stromatoporoid lag bed in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3038 Hwy 127, Franklin County, stromatoporoid lag bed in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3037 Hwy 127, Franklin County, stromatoporoid lag bed in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3036 Hwy 127, Franklin County, stromatoporoid lag bed in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3035 Hwy 127, Franklin County, stromatoporoid lag bed in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3034 Hwy 127, Franklin County, stromatoporoid lag bed in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3033 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3032 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3031 Hwy 127, Franklin County, inventory of disturbed bedding in the Ordovician Lexington limestone 
3002 Looking south across the Ohio River into Ludlow, Kenton Co., Kentucky up into the valley of Sleepy Hollow in Devou Park from lookout at Mount Storm Park, Price Hill, Cincinnati Ohio. Coal cars of the Norfolk and Southern Railroad in the middle of the picture.  View Geologic Map
3001 Looking south at typical "divide" topography of the Appalachian Plateau on the Lawson Farm bordering KY 1274 in Menifee Co., Kentucky.   View Geologic Map
3000 Looking south at a large rock fall on KY 1274 in the Daniel Boone National Forest, Menifee Co., Kentucky. This rok fall occured in a near vertical cut of the Mississippian Borden Formation.   View Geologic Map
2999 Looking west across a ripening tobacco field near Mail Box 2295 on KY 353 in Harrison Co., Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2998 Looking west toward KY 1274 at the Lawson Farm (Mail box 1274) in Menifee Co., Kentucky. This topography is typical of ridgelines in much of the western Appalachian Plateau.   View Geologic Map
2997 Looking east across the Ohio River into Lewis Co., Kentucky from mail box 4438 on Ginger Ridge Rd, west of Manchester, Adams Co., Ohio. The geologic section in the picture ranges from the Ordovician Fairview Formation up into the Mississipian Borden Formation, which forms the distant knobs.   View Geologic Map
2996 Looking east across the Ohio River into Lewis Co., Kentucky from mail box 4438 on Ginger Ridge Rd, west of Manchester, Adams Co., Ohio. The geologic section in the picture ranges from the Ordovician Fairview Formation up into the Mississipian Borden Formation, which forms the distant knobs.   View Geologic Map
2995 Looking northwest toward the valley wall of an abandoned diversion of the Ohio River by Illinoisan ice from HWY 10 in southeastern Campbell Co., Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2994 Looking across the Ohio River into Lewis Co., Kentucky and the west end of Manchester Island from Manchester, Adams Co., Ohio.  View Geologic Map
2993 Twin tunnels of the CSX Railroad through the Kope Formation along the Licking River in southern Kenton Co., Kentucky.   View Geologic Map
2992 Looking north at a large isolated and fluted compound load cast in the Brannon Member of the Lexington Limestone on the west lane of the Bluegrass Parkway, Anderson Co., Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2991 Looking northwest across an abandoned valley of the Ohio River-brief diversion by Illinosan ice-from KY 10 near Flagg Station, eastern Campbell Co., Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2990 Looking northeast to a cross section of a large and thick debris flow in the Ordovician Fairview Formation as seen in a large cut of US 62-68 northwest of Maysville, Mason Co., Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2989 Looking east at historical marker at the bridge of the AA highway over Cabin Creek, Lewis Co., Kentucky.   View Geologic Map
2988 Looking east at Manchester, Adams Co, Ohio and up the Ohio River valley into Lewis Co., Kentucky from Mail Box 3953 on Ginger Ridge Road in Adams Co., Ohio.  View Geologic Map
2987 Looking northwest down Johnson Creek into the far valley of the South Fork of the Licking River from Mail Box 3085 on KY 1053 in Pendleton Co., Kentucky.   View Geologic Map
2986 Open, shallow valley at boundary between inner and outer Bluegrass as seen looking north from the AA Highway at mile 16, Nicholas Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2985 Looking upstream across a full Ohio River at the powerplant of Kentucky Utilities at Ghent from the riverfront park at Vevay, Switzerland Co., Indiana.   View Geologic Map
2984 Looking southwest downstream along the Ohio River from the Hanover College Campus at Hanover, Jefferson Co., Indiana.  
2982 Looking northwest at late summer tobacco from Mail Box 2295 on KY 353, Pendleton Co., Ky. The gently rolling topography in this landscape is typical of the inner Bluegrass region.   View Geologic Map
2980 Looking downstream along the Ohio River at almost full bank stage from the landing ramp at Vevay, Switzerland Co., Indiana. Carrollton in Caroll Co., Kentucky is in the far distance.   View Geologic Map
2979 See Photo 2978.  View Geologic Map
2978 Looking east at silicified, reddish brown brecia in a dike in the Mississippi Mill Kob Limestone Member of the Slade Formation along KY 1274 about 200 ft south of its junction with Petite Lane in Rowan Co.   View Geologic Map
2977 Looking north at fluid injection structure in the Middle Tongue of the Upper Ordovician Tanglewood Limestone on the Bluegrass Parkway, Woodford Co.   View Geologic Map
2976 Looking northeast at the mouth of the Licking River toward the US 27 bridge and across the Ohio River into Ohio from the promenade of Riverside Drive, Covington, Kenton Co.   View Geologic Map
2975 Looking northwest at the Snag Creek and Pioneer Valley submembers of the Ordovician Kope Formation on the high wall of the Newport Pavilion Shopping Center in Newport, Campbell Co.  View Geologic Map
2974 Looking southwest at cut in the Pioneer Valley and Snag Creek Submembers of the Ordovician Kope Formation at the Newport Pavilion Shopping Center, Newport, Campbell Co.   View Geologic Map
2973 Versailles Structure, clipped image from the Geologic Map of the Lexington 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, scale 1:100,000  View Geologic Map
2972 Middlesboro Impact Structure, clipped image from the Geologic Map of the Middlesboro 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, scale 1:100,000  View Geologic Map
2971 Jeptha Knob Structure, clipped image from the Geologic Map of the Louisville 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, scale 1:100,000  View Geologic Map
2970 Wagon Box Arch 
2969 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Kyrock Bridge. 
2968 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Boulder Den Arch. 
2967 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Wagon Box Arch. 
2966 Kyrock Bridge 
2965 Kyrock Bridge 
2964 Kyrock Bridge 
2963 Boulder Den Arch 
2962 Boulder Den Arch 
2960 Wagon Box Arch 
2959 Wagon Box Arch 
2958 Liz's Mini Arch 
2957 Liz's Mini Arch. 
2954 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Liz''s Mini Arch. 
2953 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Loess Arch. 
2952 Loess Arch 
2951 Loess Arch 
2950 Loess Arch 
2949 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Hole to the Cliff Arch. 
2948 Hole to the Cliff Arch 
2947 Hole to the Cliff Arch. 
2945 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Tectonic Arch. 
2944 Tectonic Arch. 
2943 Joints related to the formation of Tectonic Arch. 
2942 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Sunnyside Arch. 
2941 Sunnyside Arch 
2940 Sunnyside Arch. 
2939 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Twin Fracture Arches. 
2938 Twin Fracture Arches 
2937 Twin Fracture Arches 
2936 Twin Fracture Arches. 
2933 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Winding Cave Arch. 
2932 Winding Cave Arch 
2931 Winding Cave Arch. 
2930 Winding Cave Arch. 
2929 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Rocky Top Bay Window. 
2928 Rocky Top Bay Window. 
2927 Rocky Top Bay Window 
2926 Rocky Top Bay Window. 
2925 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Castle Arch.  View Geologic Map
2924 Castle Arch  View Geologic Map
2923 Joints related to the formation of Castle Arch.  View Geologic Map
2922 Castle Arch.  View Geologic Map
2921 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at White''s Branch Arch. 
2920 White's Branch Arch 
2919 White's Branch Arch 
2918 White's Branch Arch. 
2917 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Turtle Back Arch.  View Geologic Map
2916 Turtle Back Arch.  View Geologic Map
2915 Smaller of the two arches at Turtle Back Arch.  View Geologic Map
2914 Larger of the two arches at Turtle Back Arch.  View Geologic Map
2913 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Rock Bridge.  View Geologic Map
2912 Rock Bridge is located in Wolfe County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 60 feet.  View Geologic Map
2911 Rock Bridge.  View Geologic Map
2909 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Half Moon Arch.  View Geologic Map
2908 One of many smaller arches near Half Moon Arch.  View Geologic Map
2907 One of many smaller arches near Half Moon Arch.  View Geologic Map
2906 Half Moon Arch.  View Geologic Map
2905 Half Moon Arch  View Geologic Map
2904 One of many small arches near Half Moon Arch.  View Geologic Map
2903 One of many small arches near Half Moon Arch.  View Geologic Map
2902 Rose diagram showing the joint orientations at Angel Windows.  View Geologic Map
2901 The larger of the two arches that comprise Angel Windows.  View Geologic Map
2900 The smaller arch of Angel Windows.  View Geologic Map
2899 Angel Windows consists of 2 arches.  View Geologic Map
2898 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Sky Bridge.  View Geologic Map
2897 Sky Bridge.  View Geologic Map
2896 Jointing related to the formation of Sky Bridge.  View Geologic Map
2895 Sky Bridge is located in Wolfe County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and consists of two openings. The larger opening has a span of 71 feet and is 33 feet high. The smaller opening has a span of 18 feet and is 6 feet high.  View Geologic Map
2894 Cross Section B-B', Jeptha Knob Cryptoexplosive Structure  View Geologic Map
2893 Cross Section A-A', Jeptha Knob Cryptoexplosive Structure  View Geologic Map
2892 Geologic Map of the Jeptha Knob Cryptoexplosive Structure, Shelby County, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
2891 Cross Section E-E', Winchester GQ (GQ-1159)  View Geologic Map
2890 Cross Section D-D', Winchester GQ (GQ-1159)  View Geologic Map
2889 Cross Section C-C', Winchester GQ (GQ-1159)  View Geologic Map
2888 Cross Section B-B', Winchester GQ (GQ-1159)  View Geologic Map
2887 Cross Section A-A', Winchester GQ (GQ-1159)  View Geologic Map
2886 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Indian Arch.  View Geologic Map
2885 Indian Arch.  View Geologic Map
2884 Indian Arch  View Geologic Map
2883 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at the Ledford Twin Arches. 
2882 Smaller arch of the Ledford Twin Arches. 
2881 Larger arch of the Ledford Twin Arches. 
2880 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Cherokee Arch. 
2879 Cherokee Arch 
2877 Cherokee Arch 
2876 View from beneath Cherokee Arch. 
2875 Cherokee Arch. 
2874 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Rat Window_2 
2873 Rat Window_2 
2872 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Princess Arch.  View Geologic Map
2871 Princess Arch as seen from the next ridge spur to the northeast.  View Geologic Map
2870 KGS personnel measuring the height of Princess Arch.  View Geologic Map
2869 Princess Arch.  View Geologic Map
2868 Princess Arch is located in Wolfe County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 32 feet and is 14 feet high.  View Geologic Map
2866 Rose diagram showing joint orientation for Whislting Arch.  View Geologic Map
2865 Whistling Arch.  View Geologic Map
2864 Whistling Arch  View Geologic Map
2863 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Dark Hollow Arches. 
2862 Dark Hollow Arches. 
2861 Dark Hollow Arches. 
2860 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at Natural Bridge.  View Geologic Map
2859 Natural Bridge is located in Powell County at Natural Bridge State Park. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 78 feet and is 32 feet high.  View Geologic Map
2858 Natural Bridge is located in Powell County at Natural Bridge State Park. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has span of 78 feet and is 32 feet high.  View Geologic Map
2857 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Twilight Arch 
2856 Joints related to the formation of Twilight Arch 
2855 Twilight Arch 
2854 Twilight Arch 
2853 Rose diagram showing joint orientation at Whittleton Arch.  View Geologic Map
2852 Whittleton Arch  View Geologic Map
2851 Whittleton Arch  View Geologic Map
2850 Whittleton Arch  View Geologic Map
2849 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Short Creek Arch. 
2848 Short Creek Arch. 
2847 Small arch near Short Creek Arch. 
2846 Short Creek Arch. 
2845 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Nada Arches_east 
2844 Nada Arches_east 
2843 Nada Arches_east 
2842 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Henson's Arch.  View Geologic Map
2841 Henson's Arch.  View Geologic Map
2840 Henson's Arch.  View Geologic Map
2839 Henson's Arch.  View Geologic Map
2838 Rose diagram showing joint orientation for Sand Gap Arch. 
2837 Sand Gap Arch 
2836 Small arch next to Sand Gap Arch. 
2835 Sand Gap Arch 
2834 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Lost Camp Arch 
2833 Lost Camp Arch on private property. 
2832 Lost Camp Arch on private property. 
2831 A mini-arch at the larger of the two Slade Twin Arches. 
2830 Larger of the two Slade Twin Arches. Private property. 
2829 Larger of the two Slade Twin Arches. Private property. 
2828 Rose diagram showing joint orientation at the larger of the two Slade Twin Arches.  
2827 Rose diagram showing joint orientations at the smaller of the two Slade Twin Arches. 
2826 Smaller of the two Slade Twin Arches. Private property. 
2825 Jointing related to the formation of the smaller of the two Slade Twin Arches. 
2824 Smaller arch of the Slade Twin Arches. Private property. 
2823 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Hidden Arch  View Geologic Map
2822 Hidden Arch  View Geologic Map
2821 Rose diagram showing joint orientation for Silvermine Arch  View Geologic Map
2820 Silvermine Arch  View Geologic Map
2819 Silvermine Arch  View Geologic Map
2818 Silvermine Arch  View Geologic Map
2817 Joint related to formation of Silvermine Arch.  View Geologic Map
2816 Silvermine Arch  View Geologic Map
2815 Fracture forming part of Gray's Arch.  View Geologic Map
2814 Grays Arch is located in Powell County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 76 feet and is 55 feet high.  View Geologic Map
2813 Rose diagram showing the joint orientations for Gray's Arch.  View Geologic Map
2812 Rose diagram showing joint orientations for Star Gap Arch  View Geologic Map
2811 fracture orientations at Star Gap Arch  View Geologic Map
2810 Star Gap Arch is located in Powell County in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. This arch has formed in the Corbin Sandstone, and has a span of 70 feet and is 12 feet high.  View Geologic Map
2809 Star Gap Arch  View Geologic Map
2807 Courthouse Rock  View Geologic Map
2805 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for Double Arch.  View Geologic Map
2804 Double Arch  View Geologic Map
2803 Double Arch  View Geologic Map
2802 Double Arch  View Geologic Map
2801 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for roadcut.  View Geologic Map
2800 Fractures in Borden Formation.  View Geologic Map
2798 Remediation of slide in Borden Formation  View Geologic Map
2796 The Greendale Lentil (ls) lies in the upper Lexington Limestone below the Millersburg Member. It is a nodular-bedded limestone and shale containing many fossils. Seen here at mile 118.6 on Interstate 75  View Geologic Map
2795 The Tanglewood Limestone Member, clastic limestone, of the Lexington Limestone (Olt2) sits atop the Brannon Member, interbedded thin limestone and shale, of the Lexington Limestone, at mile 67.4 on the Bluegrass Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2794 The Millersburg Member of the Lexington Limestone (Olm), nodular-bedded limestone and shale, sits atop the Tanglewood Limestone Member (Olt), granular limestone, of the Lexington Limestone  View Geologic Map
2793 The nodular-bedded Grier Limestone Member (Olg) of the Lexington Limestone is exposed at mile 65.6 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2792 The Tanglewood Limestone Member (Olt) of the Lexington Limestone seen here at mile 64.8 on the Bluegrass Parkway, contains phosphate, which has been mined on a small scale in nearby areas.  View Geologic Map
2791 An outcrop of the Tanglewood (Olt) Limestone Member of the Lexington Limestone at mile 63.7 on the Bluegrass Parkway exposes a unique distorted bedding that may be the result of dewatering and collapse of soft sediments before they lithified (turned to rock).  View Geologic Map
2790 Contacts: The Tanglewood No. 2 Ot2), nodular-bedded limestone and shale; the Brannon (Olb), thin-bedded limestone and shale; and the Lower Tongue of the Tanglewood Limestone (Olt1), all Members of the Lexington Limestone are seen at mile 61.2 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2789 The nodular-bedded, fossil-rich (bryozoan) limestone of the Sulphur Well Member of the Lexington Limestone (Ols) is exposed at mile 56.4 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2788 The Clays Ferry Formation (Ocf) at mile 44.6 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2787 The Ordovician Clays Ferry Formation (Ocf) at mile 39.0 on the Bluegrass Parkway. the shale beds between the limestone are thicker in the Clays Ferry Formation. When exposed to air and water, the shale breaks down quickly, which leaves the overlying limestone layers without support and they collapse. This process creates a more rugged terrain, and the rolling Outer Bluegrass is transformed in the Bluegrass Hills.  View Geologic Map
2786 The Calloway Creek Limestone (Occ) at mile 35.8 on the Bluegrass Parkway: interbedded limestone and shale, limestone dominant. Contrasted with the rubbly appearance of the Grant Lake Limestone, the evenly-bedded Calloway Creek Limestone appears neat and orderly.  View Geologic Map
2785 Rubble at the base of a Grant Lake Limestone (Ogl) outcrop at mile 35.1 on the Bluegrass Parkway includes brachiopods and shows the nodularity of the limestone.   View Geologic Map
2784 Nodular-bedded limestone and shale in the Grant Lake Limestone (Ogl) at mil 35.1 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2783 The Grant Lake Limestone (Ogl)–nodular-bedded limestone and shale, limestone dominant – above the Gilbert Member of the Ashlock Formation (Oag)– micrograined limestone – at mile 31.7 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2782 Coral that grew in the sea bed that was Kentucky over 425 million years ago is preserved in the Bardstown Member of the Drakes Formation (Odb) at mile 27.5 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2781 Nodular bedded limestone and shale in the Bardstown Member of the Drakes Formation (Odb) at mile 27.5 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2780 The Rowland Member of the Drakes Formation (Odr), greenish gray, dolomitic limestone and shale, at mile 27.9 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2779 The very fine grained, dense Silurian Laurel Dolomite (Sl), seen here at mile 24.0 on the Bluegrass Parkway, is extensive, and has been widely quarried for agricultural lime, construction aggregate, and ssphalt filler. It has alos been used for building stone.  View Geologic Map
2778 Middle Devonian Sellersburg Limestone (Dsb) rests unconformably on the Middle Silurian Laurel Dolomite (Sl) at mile 20.9 on the Bluegrass Parkway. The missing Lower Devonian and Upper Silurian units represent a time interval of about 30 million years.  View Geologic Map
2777 Silurian Laurel Dolomite (Sl) at mile 19.0 on the Bluegrass Parkway shows the effects of chemical weathering. Rainwater combines with carbon dioxide in the air, forming weak carbonic acid, which moves downward through cracks and crevices. The process gradually dissolves the calcium carbonate and produces an irregular surface that may be filled in and covered by insoluble residuum composed of clay.  View Geologic Map
2776 The Devonian New Albany Shale (Dna) lies atop the Devonian Sellersburg Limestone (Dsb) at mile 13.3 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2775 The New Albany Shale at mile 11.4 on the Bluegrass Parkway in Nelson County was formed in low-oxygen (anaerobic) seas that preserved the organic matter in the sediments. In some areas the black shale contain enough organic matter to burn.  View Geologic Map
2774 Thin, laminar layers of the New Albany Shale (Dna) at mile 10.9 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2773 The New Albany Shale (Dna) at mile 10.9 on the Bluegrass Parkway contains very thin bedded shale.  View Geologic Map
2772 Silty shale, containing glauconite, of the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation (Mbn) at mile 5.3 on the Bluegrass Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2771 The sediments that form the Muldraugh Member of the Borden Formation (Mbm) at mile 3.2 on the Bluegrass Parkway were deposited on a downslope (right to left) creating the rolling beds.  View Geologic Map
2770 Chert nodules in the St. Louis Limestone at mile 2.2 on the Bluegrass Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2769 The St. Louis Limestone (Msl), cherty limestone, seen at mile 2.2 on the Bluegrass Parkway  View Geologic Map
2768 The Salem Limestone (Ms) at mile 2.3 on the Bluegrass Parkway. The Salem in most of Kentucky is too shaly for commercial use. To the north in Indiana, less clay was deposited in the ancient sea and there is less shale in the Salem, which is quarried extensively.  View Geologic Map
2767 Oolitic limestone of the Ste. Genevieve (Msg) at mile 128.4 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2766 The Ste. Genevieve Limestone (Msg), medium-grained limestone, partly oolitic, seen at mile 124.5 on the Western Kentucky Parkway. The Ste. Genevieve is mined and quarried for use as agricultural lime and construction aggregate.  View Geologic Map
2765 Oil stains on the Big Clifty Sandstone Member (Mgb) of the Golconda Formation at mile 120.9 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2764 Beaver Bend and Paoli Limestone (Mbp) at mile 121.6 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2763 Cedar trees grow where the top of the Haney Limestone (Mgh) (coarse-grained limestone) meets the bottom of the Hardinsburg (Mh) Sandstone (fine-grained sandstone).  View Geologic Map
2761 The Haney Limestone Member (Mgh) of the Golconda Formation at mile 115.8 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2760 Big Clifty Sandstone Member (Mgb) of the Golconda Formation at mile 109.3 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2759 Sandstone lies above shale in the Pennsylvanian Caseyville (Pca) Formation at mile 105.4 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2758 Sandstone, coal, siltstone, and shale in the Pennsylvanian Tradewater and Caseyville Formation (Ptc) at mile 98.8 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2757 Interbedded limestone, shale, and siltstone in the Leitchfield Formation (Ml) at mile 106.4 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2756 Kinkhead Limestone (Mbk) overlies shale in the Buffalo Wallow (Mbw) at mile 101.0 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2755 Sandstone over shale over siltstone in the Pennsylvanian Tradewater and Caseyville Formation (Ptc) at mile 92.4 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2754 Shale in the Tradewater and Caseyville Formation (Ptc) at mile 90.7 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2753 Shale Unit in Caseyville and Tradewater Formation (Ptc) at mile 91.9 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2752 Sandstone over silty shale in the Pennsylvanian Tradewater and Caseville (Ptc) Formation along the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2751 The Elm Lick coal bed in the Tradewater Formation (Pt), seen along the Western Kentucky Parkway, is not thick enough here for commercial mining. The pale yellow strata beneath the coal is underclay. Below that is silty shale.  View Geologic Map
2750 Sandstone, shale, siltstone, and coal in the slumping Pennsylvanian Tradewater and Caseyville Formation (Ptc) at mile 80.4 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2749 Sandy and silty shale above and below a coal bed in the Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation (Pc) at mile 73.5 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2748 Sandstone, Baker (No.13) coal, underclay, shale, and the Providence Limestone Member in descending order are seen in the Shelburn Formation (Psh) at mile 68.6 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2747 Baker (No.13) coal in the Shelburn Formation (Psh) at mile 64.0 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2746 Sandstone in the Shelburn Formation (Psh) at mile 60.85 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2745 Sandstone in the Carbondale Formation (Pc) at mile 53.0 on the Western Kentucky Parkway. Just like sand on beaches, sandstones come in many shades from nearly red, to gray, to brown.  View Geologic Map
2744 White and yellow sulphur precipitates from pyrite weathering in the Paradise (No. 12) coal in the Shelburn Formation (Psh) at mile 51.3 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2743 Cross-bedded sandstone deposited by an ancient river lies above the commercially-mined Paradise (WKy No. 12) coal in the Shelburn Formation (Psh).  View Geologic Map
2742 Sandstone in the Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation (Pc) at mil 33.2 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2741 Sandy shale in the Glen Dean Limestone at mile 15.6 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2740 Nodule of iron carbonate called siderite in the Pennsylvanian Tradewater Fm (Pt) at mile 20.0.  View Geologic Map
2739 Fissile (thin sheets), carbonaceous shale in the Pennsylvanian Tradewater Formation (Pt) at mile 20.0 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2738 Gray shale of the Pennsylvanian Tradewater Formation at mile 20.0 on the Wendell H. Ford Western Kentucky Parkway in Caldwell County.   View Geologic Map
2737 Siderite nodule in Pennsylvanian Caseyville Formation (Pca) at mile 19.5 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2736 Ironstone concretions in Pennsylvanian Caseyville (Pca) Formation at mile 19.5 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2735 Sandstone in the Caseyville Formation (Pca) at mile 19.5 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2734 Sandstone above and unnamed coal bed in the Tradewater Formation (Pt) at mile 19.7 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2733 Golconda Formation at mile 15.3 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2732 Menard Limestone, shaly limestone and shale, at mile 18.2 on the Western Kentucky Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2684  
2677   View Geologic Map
2676  
2675   View Geologic Map
2670 Fracture orientations using Rose Diagram for slad_01.  View Geologic Map
2669 Fractures in Cowbell Member of Borden Formation along Whittleton Branch  View Geologic Map
2668 Dredge boat and machinery at Daviess County Sand and Gravel along the Ohio River. DCS&G produces over 200,000 tons of sand and gravel aggregate a year. See the Guidebook for the 2006 KSPG and AIPG Joint Fall Field Trip.  View Geologic Map
2667 View downslope of a large landslide in Perry Co. along KY 699. Thick colluvium deposits slid approximately 1500 ft. downslope damaging a road and destroying one home. The colluvial mass was saturated by groundwater seeping from an existing underground mine pool. The slide occurred on in April 2006.  View Geologic Map
2666 Large slump blocks of Ohio Shale within an old landslide in Rowan Co. along KY 1722. The slide occurs within the Ohio Shale that sits above the landslide susceptible Crab Orchard Formation. The Ohio Shale is highly fractured which allows water to reach the underlying Crab Orchard Formation. The Crab Orchard Formation is a clayey shale unit that becomes plastic when wet and susceptible to sliding. This landslide was mapped on the Farmers 7.5-min geologic quadrangle by McDowell, 1975.  View Geologic Map
2665 Small lanslide in colluvium along KY 1098. Failure occurred during heavy rains in May 2009. Note the thick colluvium in the scarp with the house benched into the slope above. This type of slide is typical of eastern Kentucky landslides after heavy precipitation events.  View Geologic Map
2664 View northwest of a large landslide scar in Rowan Co. The slide occurs within Ohio Shale and underlying Crab Orchard Formation. The Crab Orchard Formation is a clayey shale unit that becomes plastic when wet and susceptible to sliding. The yellowish rocks toward the top of the scar are thin exposures of the Bedford and Sunbury Shales. This landslide was mapped on the Farmers 7.5-min geologic quadrangle by McDowell, 1975.  View Geologic Map
2663 Landslide along a cut bank in the Kentucky River in Jessamine Co. along KY 1541. Failure occurred on April 12th 2009 after heavy rains affecting 150 ft of the shoulder on the road. The road was shut down for several days. The slide material consists of roadbed fill overlying weathered rock and soil.  View Geologic Map
2662 Road embankment failure along KY 1722 in Rowan Co. The slide occurs in the Ohio Shale but possibly reaches to the underlying Crab Orchard Formation. Multiple generations of pavement and guard rails have been used in this spot. Note are arcuate cracks and damage to the road. Evidence of sliding is also present in the slope above the road.  View Geologic Map
2661 Looking southeast at a three foot Precambrian biotite-granite boulder with an overprint Middle Ordovician age of 474 Ma embedded in the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale along Logan Hollow northeast of Morehead, Rowan Co., KY. This ice rafted boulder is named the Robinson Boulder after its discovery by M.J. Robinson in 2006.  View Geologic Map
2660 Looking southeast at boulders of the Farmers Member of the Mississippian Border Formation intercepted by a bench cut into the underlying Henley Bed, a shale, on a cut along KY 801 northwest of Morehead, Rowan Co., KY. A bench such as this prevents fallen rock of boulder size from collecting in a roadside ditch and possibly from reaching the roadway. See Stop 2 of the guidebook by Ettenson, Lierman, and Mason (2009) prepared by the Kentucky Geological Survey for the AIPG (Kentucky Branch).  View Geologic Map
2659 Looking north at brown weathering dolomite beds of the Mississippian Fort Payne Formation in hackly, gray silty and calcareous shale at end of Old Roena Road, Lake Cumberland State Resort Park, Russell Co., KY. Fresh pieces are gray, uniform, hard argillaceous dolomite.  View Geologic Map
2658 Looking down lake and west from landing at end of Old Roena Road at brown dolomite beds of the Fort Payne Formation (Mississippian) in hackly silty and dolomite gray shale, Lake Cumberland State Resort Park, Russell Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2657 Looking north at the Ordovician Grant Lake Limestone in road cut of south lane of KY 11 southwest of Flemingsburg, Fleming Co., KY. Notice the cyclic bedding in set of 4 to 5 feet. Outcrop is the Outer Bluegrass eco-region of Kentucky (Woods et al., 2002).  View Geologic Map
2656 Looking north at the contact of the Chattanooga shale with the underlying Ordovician Cumberland Formation on KY 1281 along Willis Creek near its junction with Wolf Hollow in northwestern Clinton Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2653 Looking northwest at deep reentrant in over-hanging bluff in the Pennsylvanian Pounds Sandstone Member of the Caseyville Sandstone at Mantle Rock off KY 133 west of Joy, Livingston Co., KY. Here the Pounds is preserved at the south end of a large graben well south of its principal outcrop belt to the northeast in adjacent Crittenden and Hardin Counties. This rock shelter was used by early travelers and the Cherokee Indians in the winter of 1837-38 when they were forces to go to Oklahoma by President Andrew Jackson. Above the bluff of Mantle Rock are several large test pits for fluorite.  View Geologic Map
2652 Looking northwest at deep reentrant in over-hanging bluff in the Pennsylvanian Pounds Sandstone Member of the Caseyville Sandstone at Mantle Rock off KY 133 west of Joy, Livingston Co., KY. Here the Pounds is preserved at the south end of a large graben well south of its principal outcrop belt to the northeast in adjacent Crittenden and Hardin counties. This rock shelter was used by early travelers and the Cherokee Indians in the winter of 1837-38, when they were forced to go to Oklahoma by President Andrew Jackson. Above the bluff of Mantle Rock are several large test pits for flourite.  View Geologic Map
2651 Looking north at thin cross beds in irregularly bedded Hardinsburg Sandstone (Chesterian, Mississippian) in front of the lodge at Rough River State Park, Grayson Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2650 Looking southwest at thinly bedded cross bedding of the Hardinsburg Sandstone (Chesterian/Mississippian) in front of the lodge at Rough River State Park, Grayson Co., KY. Note thin beds with ripples.  View Geologic Map
2649 Looking west at oxidation by groundwater along fractures in a new cut of the Mississippian Fort Payne Formation at access road to Holcombs Landing ramp off US 127; north end of Wolf Creek Dam south of Jamestown, Russell Co., KY. Note zone of white geodes at top of outcrop.  View Geologic Map
2648 Looking north at freshwater oxidation along a vertical fracture in the off reef. silty argillaceous and dolomite matrix of the Mississippian Fort Payne Formation in the parking lot of Holcombs Landing at the north end of Wolf Creek Dam on US 127, Russell Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2647 Looking north at freshwater oxidation along a vertical fracture in the off-reef, silty argillaceous and dolomite matrix of the Mississippian Fort Payne Formation in the parking lot of Holcombs Landing at the north end of Wolf Creek Dam on US 127, Russell Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2646 Looking north at new cut in the Borden Formation (Mississippian) on KY 70, southwest of Liberty, Casey Co., KY. An instructive research project would be to carefully describe this section and compare it with the new one about three miles to the east on the other side of the valley of the Green River.  View Geologic Map
2645 Looking north at fluid injection structure in the Middle Tongue of the Upper Ordovician Tanglewood Limestone on the Bluegrass Parkway, Fayette Co., KY. Stratigraphy by Frank Ettenson, 2009  View Geologic Map
2644 Looking west at lenses of small quartz geodes (after anhydrite) in the Mississippian Fort Payne Formation at new road cut on US 127 opposite entrance to new launching ramp at north end of Wolf Creek Dam, Russell Co.KY.  View Geologic Map
2643 See Wc Swadley (198-) for a map of this massive bed and its explanation as a wash-over fan.  View Geologic Map
2642 Looking south at a long cut in the Grant Lake Limestone on KY 11 at its junction with KY3170 Mason Co., KY. Thin even beds without intervening shale distinguish the Great Lake from the thicker bedded limestones separated by shales of the Fairview Limestone  View Geologic Map
2641 Looking northeast at the Clays Ferry Kope-Fairview contact on KY 11 about two miles southwest of the Licking River in Nicholas Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2637 Looking east at the abandoned high wall of the Marion Limestone and Asphalt Quarry of the Rogers Group adjacent to US 60 about six miles northeast of Marian, Crittenden Co., KY. In 2009 the location of this photograph could not be precisely established so the coordinates are those of the plant office. THe section start with the Lower Kinkaid Limestone at the base followed by shales of the Clore Formation capped by basal Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales of the Caseyville Formation.  View Geologic Map
2636 Looking eat at the abandoned high wall of the Marion Limestone and Asphalt Quarry of the Rogers Group adjacent to US 60 about six miles northeast of Marian, Crittenden Co., KY. In 2009 the location of this photograph could not be precisely established so the coordinates are those of the plant office. The section starts with the Lower Kinkaid Limestone at the base followed by shales of the Clore Formation capped by basal Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales of the Caseyville Formation.  View Geologic Map
2635 Looking east at the abandoned high wall of the Marion Limestone and Asphalt Quarry of the Rogers Group adjacent to US 60 about six miles northeast of Marion, Crittenden Co., KY. In 2009 the location of this photograph could not be precisely established so the coordinates are those of the plant office. The section starts with the Lower Kinkaid Limestone at the base followed by shales of the Clore Formation capped by basal Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales of the Caseyville Formation.  View Geologic Map
2634 Looking northwest at one of the best Kope to Bellevue section of the Greater Cincinnati area on Mason Road (formerly Riedlin Road) just east of its junction with KY 16 in Taylor Mill, Kenton Co., KY. See Diekmeyer (1998, p. 10-37) in Guidebook 13 "Sampling the Layer Cake that Isn't" by Davis and Coffey, eds. of the Ohio Division of Geological Survey for full details.  View Geologic Map
2633 Looking north at large isolated and fluted compound load cast in the Brannon Member of the Lexington Limestone on the west lane of the Bluegrass Parkway, Anderson Co., KY. Stratigraphy by Frank Ettenson, 2009.  View Geologic Map
2632 Looking north at large isolated and fluted compound load cast in the Brannon Member of the Lexington Limestone on the west lane of the Bluegrass Parkway, Anderson Co., KY. Stratigraphy by Frank Ettenson, 2009  View Geologic Map
2631 Looking northeast at the new alternative type section of the Upper Ordovician Kope Formation on KY 466 near its junction with KY 8 in Campbell Co., KY. See Kentucky Map and Chart Series 92 by Holland et al. (2006) for a detailed description and Potter (2007, Fig. 27) for picture.  View Geologic Map
2630 Looking west at exfoliation developed on the Cowbell Member of the Mississippian Border Formation from Flat Hollow Road east of South Portsmouth, Greenup Co., KY. Exfoliation such as this is characteristic of the Borden Formation, when interbeds of shale are absent.   View Geologic Map
2626 Looking north at the historical plaque at Tygarts Creek from the west end of Bennett's Mill Covered Bridge and KY 7, Greenup Co., KY.   View Geologic Map
2625 Looking west at Bennett's Mill Covered Bridge, one of Kentucky's oldest and best preserved, from Tygarts Creek Road near its junction with KY 7, Greenup Co., KY. See historical plaque for information.  View Geologic Map
2624 Looking downstream and north at the Licking River Upper Blue Lick along Milltown Road, Nicholas Co. KY.  View Geologic Map
2623 Looking upstream and southeast at high water in the Licking River from bridge of KY 11 near Sherburne, Fleming Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2622 Looking northwest along the mouth of the Licking River across the Ohio River into downtown Cincinnati from General James Taylor Park, Newport, Campbell Co., KY. The Licking River is the third longest in Kentucky after the Green and Kentucky Rivers.  View Geologic Map
2621 Looking southeast at a three foot Precambrian biotite-granite boulder with an overprint Middle Ordovician age of 474 Ma embedded in the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale along Logan Hollow northeast of Morehead, Rowan Co., KY. This ice rafted boulder is named the Robinson Boulder after its discovery by M.J. Robinson in 2006.  View Geologic Map
2620 Looking southwest from Quail Run Road (off KY 609) across a terrace in the wide valley of the Licking River southeast of Butler in Pendleton Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2619 Looking north across the wide upland valley flat of a smal creek to a large Kentucky farm from KY 11 near Weidonia, Mason Co., KY. THis landscape is in the Inner Bluegrass ecoregion of Kentucky (Woods, et al., 2002).  View Geologic Map
2618 Looking south at former dam and abandoned mill race on Slate Creek just off KY 111 about one mile north of Slate Valley, Bath Co., KY. Outer Bluegrass ecoregion of Kentucky (Woods et al, 2002).  View Geologic Map
2617 Looking westward at a plaque for Mantle Rock on KY 133 about three miles southwest of Carrsville, Livingston Co., KY. This natural arch in Pounds Sandstone, member of the Caseyville Formation was a shelter for Cherokee Indians in the winter of 1837-1838.  View Geologic Map
2616 Looking west at the Kentucky Utilities Plant in Ghent, Gallatin Co., KY from the north side of US 42.  View Geologic Map
2615 Looking west and upstream at the cascade of Indian Creek in the Middle Mississippian Fort Payne Formation close to KY 3062, Clinton Co., KY. Here one can see a very well exposed "off reef" section of the Fort Payne.  View Geologic Map
2614 Looking northeast at low wooded scarp of the Appalachian Plateau from Parker Road one mile east of its junction with KY 111 in Fleming Co., KY. Mississippian sandstones and shale form the distant landscape of the escarpment, whereas Upper Ordovician rocks form the proximal landscape. This landscape is at the boundary of the Outer Blugrass and Knobs-Lower Scioto Dissected Upland ecoregions. (Wood et al., 2002).  View Geologic Map
2613 Looking downstream and west at the North Fork of the Licking River from KY 989 southwest of Burtonsville, Lewis Co., KY. The North Fork has its headwaters in the outer limits of the Appalachian Plateau some six miles to the southeast near Bowman Spring.  View Geologic Map
2612 Looking southeast at the valley of Moore Branch from KY 989 southwest of Charters, Lewis Co., KY. Moore Creek is a tributary to the northeast trending Salt Lick Creek, a barbed tributary of the Ohio River (and thus a relict Teays-age stream).  View Geologic Map
2611 Looking south at the Licking River in bank full mode from the bridge of KY 177 at Butler, Pendleton Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2610 Looking southwest at the valley of the Licking River from a hillside on KY 609 about two miles south of its intersection with KY 177 near Butler, Pendleton Co., KY. Note Licking River in bank full mode.  View Geologic Map
2608 Historical marker for the Gower House, an early luxury inn for steamboat travelers along the Ohio River, at Smithland, Livingston Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2607 Looking southwest at the Grower House, an early luxury inn for steamboat travelers along the Ohio River at Smithland, Livingston Co., KY. See historical marker for full details.  View Geologic Map
2606 Looking east across Upper Ordovician rocks at the low wooded escarpment overlain by Mississippian rocks from Parker Road about one mile est of its junction with KY 111 in Fleming Co., KY. This landscape is at the boundary of the Outer Bluegrass.  View Geologic Map
2605 Grange City Covered Bridge, Fleming County  View Geologic Map
2604 Historical marker next to Grange City Covered Bridge, Fleming County.  View Geologic Map
2603 Looking northeast at the Ohio River from near KY 137 at Birdsville, Livingston Co., KY. Steward Island Wildlife Management Area is to the left. This part of Livingston is in the Crawford Mammoth Cave Uplands ecozone of Kentucky (Woods et al., 2002)  View Geologic Map
2602 Licking River in flood as seen from ramp along Locust Parkway, south-central Kenton Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2601 Looking west across the valley of the North Fork of the Licking River toward Pea Ridge (left) and Sugar Loaf (right), western limits of the Appalachian Plateau from unnamed cemetery along KY 334 in Lewis Co., KY about one mile east of Foxport.  View Geologic Map
2600 Looking downstream and northeast along the headwaters of the North Fork of the Licking River from the bridge of KY 344 at Foxport, Fleming Co., KY. Distant, wooded hill is the escarpment of the Appalachian Plateau.  View Geologic Map
2599 Looking northwest along the mouth of the Licking River to the Ohio River and Downtown Cincinnati from General James Taylor Park, Campbell Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2598 Looking southwest across high terrace at valley side of Slate Creek near Slate Creek, Bath Co., KY.  View Geologic Map
2597 Contact between the overlying Salem and Warsaw Limestones with the Muldraugh Member of the Borden Formation along the Cumberland Parkway. Note the wavy channel fill in the outcrop. Bronston Member of the St. Louis Limestone is also present near the top of the outcrop.  View Geologic Map
2596 Contact between the overlying Salem and Warsaw Limestones with the Muldraugh Member of the Borden Formation along the Cumberland Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2595 Contact between the overlying Muldraugh Member and the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation along the Cumberland Parkway. Floyds Knob Bed is also present within the Nancy Member.  View Geologic Map
2594 Load casts in the Big Clifty Sandstone, behind Rough River St. Park Lodge, exposed at low pool level  View Geologic Map
2593 Mudcracks and ripple marks in the Big Clifty Sandstone, behind Rough River St. Park Lodge, exposed at low pool level  View Geologic Map
2592 Western Ky. Pkway, view north across road of Leitchfield Formation (See KSPG guidebook for lithologic details).  View Geologic Map
2591 Western Ky. Pkway, Mile Post 99, paleo slump, Caseyville Formation overlying the Menard Limestone (See KSPG guidebook for lithologic details).  View Geologic Map
2590 Salvage Yard Quarry, unconformity contact between overlying Caseyville Formation (Pca) and underlying Buffalo Wallow Formation, Kinkaid Member (Mbk), looking north. (See KSPG guidebook for lithologic details).  View Geologic Map
2589 007 - Sunrise, Rough River Lake, looking east, Big Clifty Sandstone behind Rough River St. Park Lodge, exposed at low pool level  View Geologic Map
2588 Gray limestone and shale of the Ringgold Bed within the Bronston Member of the St. Louis Limestone along the Cumberland Parkway. Bronston Member is mostly dolomite with minor limestone.   View Geologic Map
2587 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID bere_I75_05.  View Geologic Map
2586 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID bere_I75_04  View Geologic Map
2585 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for field ID bere_I75_03  View Geologic Map
2584 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID bere_I75_02  View Geologic Map
2583 Silicified coral heads (lithostrontional corals) in the Salem-St. Louis Limestones (Mississippian) at river level at Paddy's Bluff, 1.5 miles downstream from Dyersburg, Crittenden County, Kentucky. At low water such coral heads form a 10 to 15 foot zone at the base of the bluff for about 1000 or more feet. See Counts (2009) for details.  View Geologic Map
2582 Stress relief fold (shale squeeze) at the base of a long outcrop in the Ordovician Kope Formation on the west side of US-42 just east of its junction with KY-14 in far southwestern Boone County, Kentucky. Such deformation in interbedded shale-limestone or sandstone sequences is favored when 1. there is at least a gentle dip toward the valley, 2. consequent groundwater flow toward it (higher hydrologic head).  View Geologic Map
2581 Sand pit in the "Tip Top" Sand (weathered and decemented Mississippian Bethel Sandstone) near the junction of US-31 and US-62, Hardin County, KY. Deposit has a polygenetic soil on its top. The Tip Top Sand is the far updip extension of the Bethel channel which cuts deeply into the Middle Mississippian carbonate section.  
2580 Looking upstream and eastward at river level carbonates with abundant, but isolated, silicified litho-strontional coral heads. Found at the base of Paddys Bluff in the Salem-St. Louis Limestones (Mississipian). This is the best river exposure of this limestone between Barkley Dam and the Ohio River. This river was unusually low due to prolonged drought.  View Geologic Map
2579 Looking downstream at river-level carbonates with abundant, but isolated, silicified litho-strontional coral heads at the base of Paddys Bluff. Found in Salem-St. Louis Limestone (Mississippian). The Ohio River was unusually low due to drought.  View Geologic Map
2578 Looking northeast at the Ohio River from the landing of the Carrollton City Park. This picture was taken in the Fall when the river was very blue and clear because of a prolonged drought.   View Geologic Map
2577 Looking to the northwest and sub parallel to the natural bridge called Ravine Arch.  View Geologic Map
2576 Looking up into the natural bridge which is made of Pennsylvanian Sandstone. It is called the Ravine Arch and is located in Carter Caves State Park.  View Geologic Map
2575 Looking northeast at drainage and relief developed in Mississippian Limestone.   View Geologic Map
2574 Looking northwestward at a large gutter cast with sole marks on its sides in the Ordovician Fairview Formation in the US 62-68 Highway cut near Maysville.  View Geologic Map
2573 Looking south at a partially reclaimed strip mine of Bell Coal.  View Geologic Map
2572 Looking west across the mouth of the Kentucky River and downstream along the Ohio River from the launching ramp at Carollton City Park.  View Geologic Map
2571 Looking northwest up Ben Willen Branch, a tributary to Salt Lick Creek, from the the AA Highway about 1.5 miles east of Charters. Salt Lick Creek is a relict tributary to the preglacial Teays System and is older than the Ohio River.  
2569 Backwater mud on trees and on ground along lower reaches of Banklick Creek.  View Geologic Map
2568 Looking eastward parallel to Long Stretch Rd at the first bottoms of the Ohio River.  View Geologic Map
2567 Looking northeast at intersection of Ky 135 and 723. Shell oil drilled a deep, but dry test near here.   View Geologic Map
2565 Looking west downstream along the Ohio River from .2 miles east of Carrsville. The massive bluff is capped by Pennsylvanian sandstone.   View Geologic Map
2564 Looking east at a well maintained farmhouse. This house is located on a Wisconsin terrace.   View Geologic Map
2563 This natural sandstone (Chesterian/Mississippian) was a shelter for the Cherokee people during the winter of 1837-1838.  View Geologic Map
2562 Looking north at the bottoms of the Tradewater River from Ky 365 just west of its bridge over the river in Crittenden.   View Geologic Map
2561 Looking northeast at the mouth of the Cumberland River along the Ohio from the overlook at Smithland.   View Geologic Map
2560 Looking southeast at large slump on south side of Banklick Creek on playground of St. Anthony School. Taylor Mills, Kenton Co. Ky.   View Geologic Map
2559 Looking south at stagnant Tradewater River from the bridge of Ky 365 at the boundary of Crittenden and Union counties.   View Geologic Map
2558 Diamicton-modern mass flow from large landslide along Blangley Road. Note the bimodal texture of the paste-like, remolded matrix with angular clasts.   View Geologic Map
2557 Looking northeast at repeated small channels in the Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation on the Industrial Highway (Ky 67). 
2556 Looking northeast at a long section of the Borden Formation (Mississippian) capped by the Nada Formation.  View Geologic Map
2555 Rhythmic "tidal bedding" associated with the Bell Coal of the Caseyville Formation (Pennsylvanian) at and abandoned mine.   View Geologic Map
2554 Looking northeast and east at a paleochannel filled by deep maroon deposits of the Nada Formation (Pennsylvanian) on the Industrial Highway (KY 67).  View Geologic Map
2553 Looking northeast at a slump in the Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation on the Industrial Highway (Ky 67).  View Geologic Map
2552 Looking northeastward at a cut of the AA Highway near Moranburg at maroon and gray shales of the Mississippian Henley Bed just above the Sunbury Shale.  View Geologic Map
2551 Looking northwest at a very typical section of the Fairview Formation (Ordovician) on Pickett Lane just west of its junction with US 62 near Maysville.  
2548 Looking northwest at the Fairview Formation on Pickett Lane just off Ky 3056.  View Geologic Map
2547 Looking north at details of a bedding in the Ordovician Fairview Formation located on US 62.  View Geologic Map
2546 Looking northeast at the CSX Railroad cut into the Ordovician Kope and Fairview Formations.  View Geologic Map
2545 Looking south at the full section of the Ordovician Fairview Formation capped by the Grant Lakes Formation with a thin section of the Kope Formation at the base. This is an important cut at the former CSX Railroad.  View Geologic Map
2544 Looking northeast at slump in Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation just north of interchange, I-64 and Ky 67 (Industrial Parkway).   View Geologic Map
2543 Looking northeast at regularly bedded turbite sandstones of the Mississippian Farmers Member of the Borden Formation. Near Morehead in new cut for shopping center off Ky 32.   View Geologic Map
2542 Looking east at two thick zones of ball and pillow in the Ordovician Fairview Formation.  View Geologic Map
2541 Looking south at medium to thin, well bedded Palestine sandstone (Chestarian/Mississippian) exposed on KY 133. Livingston Co. Kentucky.  
2537 Looking south across the Ohio River into Ludlow, Kenton County, KY up into the valley of Sleepy Hollow in Devou Park from lookout at Mount Storm Park, Price Hill, Cincinnati, OH. Valley slopes underlain by shales of Ordovician Kope Formation and ridge tops underlain by Grant Lake and Fairview Limestones.  View Geologic Map
2536 Thin to medium bedded sandstone of the Palestine Formation (Chesterian) in cut on KY-137 just north of Birdsville, Livingston County, KY  View Geologic Map
2532 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID bere_I75_01  View Geologic Map
2531 Fractures in Cowbell Member of the Borden Formation along I-75 south of Berea, KY.  View Geologic Map
2530 Fractures in Cowbell Member of the Borden Formation along I-75 south of Berea, KY.  View Geologic Map
2529 Fractures in Cowbell Member of the Borden Formation along I-75 south of Berea, KY.  View Geologic Map
2528 Fractures in Cowbell Member of the Borden Formation along I-75 south of Berea.  View Geologic Map
2527 Fractures in Cowbell Member of the Borden Formation along I-75 south of Berea, KY.  View Geologic Map
2526 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for field ID lhkm_us27_10.  View Geologic Map
2525 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_09.  View Geologic Map
2524 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_08.  View Geologic Map
2523 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_07.  View Geologic Map
2522 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_06.  View Geologic Map
2521 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_05.  View Geologic Map
2520 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_04.  View Geologic Map
2519 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_03.  View Geologic Map
2518 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_02.  View Geologic Map
2517 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID lhkm_us27_01.  View Geologic Map
2516 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID corn_ky390_01.  View Geologic Map
2515 Rose diagram showing fracture orientions for field ID hrrd_ky390_02.  View Geologic Map
2514 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for field ID hrrd_ky390_01.  View Geologic Map
2513 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID brui_ky32_02.  View Geologic Map
2512 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID brui_ky32_01  View Geologic Map
2511 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_10.  View Geologic Map
2510 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_09.  View Geologic Map
2509 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_08  View Geologic Map
2508 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_07.  View Geologic Map
2507 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_06.  View Geologic Map
2506 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_05.  View Geologic Map
2505 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_04.  View Geologic Map
2504 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_03.  View Geologic Map
2503 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID ault_ky32_02.  View Geologic Map
2502 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for field ID ault_ky32_01.  View Geologic Map
2501 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for field ID pome_mp_03.  View Geologic Map
2500 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID pome_mp_02.  View Geologic Map
2498 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID pome_ky715_01.  View Geologic Map
2497 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_20.  View Geologic Map
2496 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_18.  View Geologic Map
2495 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_17.  View Geologic Map
2494 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_16.  View Geologic Map
2493 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_15.  View Geologic Map
2492 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_14.  View Geologic Map
2491 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_13.  View Geologic Map
2490 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_ky715_10  View Geologic Map
2489 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_ky715_12  View Geologic Map
2488 Rose diagram show fracture orientations for field ID zach_09.  View Geologic Map
2487 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_08.  View Geologic Map
2486 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation of field ID zach_07.  View Geologic Map
2485 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_06.  View Geologic Map
2484 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation for field ID zach_05.  View Geologic Map
2483 Rose diagram showing fracture orientation in field ID zach_04.  View Geologic Map
2482 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_03.  View Geologic Map
2480 Rose diagram showing fracture orientations for field ID zach_02.  View Geologic Map
2479 Industry on the Big Sandy near the I-64 bridge. The Big Sandy and Ohio Rivers provide water, transportation, and level land for industry.  View Geologic Map
2478 US 23, mile 26.0: Betsie Shale Member beneath sandstone in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
2477 US 23, mile 5: Excavations into the Elkhorn No. 3 coal bed in the Pikeville (Ppk) Formation.  View Geologic Map
2476 US 23, mile 0.5: Siderite nodules and beds in the claystone and mudstone of the Pikeville Formation.   View Geologic Map
2475 U.S. 23, mile 6.0 Pikeville Formation (Ppk) with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal near bottom.  View Geologic Map
2474 US 23, mile 8.9,8.4: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal bed above Upper Elkhorn No. 2.  View Geologic Map
2473 US 23, mile 9.9 Cedar trees feed from seepage on benches in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
2472 US 23, mile 14.3: Massive sandstone in the Hyden Formation (Ph).  View Geologic Map
2471 U.S. 23, 15.2: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal seam (bottom) and Williamson coal bed (top). Photo by Martin C. Noger.  View Geologic Map
2470 KY 114, mile 7.4: Crossbedded sandstone layers in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk) illustrate the differential movement of sand beds and types of sand during the time of deposition.  View Geologic Map
2469 KY 114, mile 8.2: Nodular sandstone in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk) results from weathering water seeping through many tiny cracks and eroding the sand.  View Geologic Map
2468 KY 114, mile 4.8: Sandstone above the top of the Kendrick Shale Member of the Hyden Formation (Ph).   View Geologic Map
2467 KY 114, mile 2.2: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal bed and Elkins Fork Shale.  View Geologic Map
2466 KY 114, mile 1.8: Fire Clay coal bed above an unnamed coal bed in the Hyden Formation (Ph).  View Geologic Map
2465 Mountain Parkway, mile 75.0: Close up, limestone concretion in Hyden Formation (Ph). The concretions formed in the clay depositions that became shale of the Hyden Formation. The concretions' spherical forms are compressed into ellipsoidal disc shapes by the pressure of subsequent overlying deposits.  View Geologic Map
2464 Mountain Parkway, mile 75.0: limestone concretions in Hyden Formation (Ph).   View Geologic Map
2463 Mountain Parkway, mile 73.3: Sandstone, siltstone, shale, Whitesburg coal, underclay, shale, and sandstone in the Hyden Formation (Ph).   View Geologic Map
2462 Mountain Parkway, mile 69.7: Sandstone over the Fire Clay coal bed in the Hyden Formation (Ph).   View Geologic Map
2461 Mountain Parkway, mile 69.1: The Four Corners Formation (Pfc) reflects a different depositional environment for the sandstone at the top of the hill than for the sandstone below.  View Geologic Map
2460 Small alluvial fan coming out of a narrow valley in Breathitt Co. These features are subtle but common in the alluvial valleys. The material of fluvial origin is most likely a mix of colluvium from the hillsides and alluvium from the floodplain. These areas are also common places to build homes or other structures.  View Geologic Map
2459 Mountain Parkway, mile 63.6: Roadcuts into shale of the Hyden Formation (Ph) may require support for stability.  View Geologic Map
2458 Mountain Parkway, mile 60.0: Massive sandstone cap above Four Corners Formation (Pfc) shales and the Peach Orchard Coal Bed.  View Geologic Map
2457 Mountain Parkway, mile 56.0: Coals in the Peach Orchard zone beneath a shale bed are mined commercially.  View Geologic Map
2456 Mountain Parkway, mile 45.5: Unnamed coal bed in the Pikeville Formation northeast of Campton.  View Geologic Map
2455 Mountain Parkway, mile 44.8: Sandstone over shale in the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
2454 Mountain Parkway, mile 38.0: Pikeville Formation (Ppk) shale.  View Geologic Map
2453 Mountain Parkway, mile 35.2: Corbin Sandstone (Plc), crossbedded pebbly sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2452 Mountain Parkway, mile 39.2: Unnamed coal seam (left) over shale of the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
2451 Mountain Parkway, mile 38.8 Sandstone dikes fill tension fractures in a shale of the Pikeville Formation (Ppk).  View Geologic Map
2450 Mountain Parkway, mile 34.6: Sandstone in the lower Pennsylvanian unconformably overlies the Mississippian Newman Limestone (Mn).  View Geologic Map
2449 Mountain Parkway, mile 34.2: In ascending order, Nada Member (Mbna), Renfro Member (Mbr) of the Borden Formation, and the Newman Limestone (Mn).  View Geologic Map
2448 Mountain Parkway, mile 31.9, 32.2, 32.8, 33.0: Cowbell Member (Mbc) overlies the Nancy Member (Mbn) of the Borden Formation. Photo by Martin C. Noger.  View Geologic Map
2447 Mountain Parkway, mile 26.9, 28.1, 29.6,30.3: Siderite nodules in the Nancy Member and weathered out.  View Geologic Map
2446 Mountain Parkway, mile 26.9, 28.1, 29.6, 30.3: Nancy Member of the Borden Formation (Mn), greenish gray shale.   View Geologic Map
2445 Mountain Parkway, mile 19.0-26.3: Nancy Member (Mn) of the Mississippian Borden Formation greenish gray shale, contains concretions. Nancy shale readily weathers to plastic clay which is particularly susceptible to slumping when moist.  View Geologic Map
2444 Mountain Parkway, mile 12.4: The New Albany (Ohio) Shale is one of Kentucky's valuable energy resources. Large quantities of natural gas have been produced from the Ohio Shale in the subsurface in eastern Kentucky. Surface and near-surface deposits are a potential source of oil that can be obtained by distillation of the kerogen in the shale. The Ohio Shale could also be a potential source of uranium.   View Geologic Map
2443 Mountain Parkway, mile 10.9-16.1: New Albany Shale (Dna black carbonaceous shale) over Boyle Dolomite (Db cherty dolomite).   View Geologic Map
2442 Mountain Parkway, mile 9.4, Contact: Silurian Brassfield Dolomite (Sbf)—cherty dolomite—overlies Ordovician Drakes (Od) Formation—greenish gray shaly dolomite.  View Geologic Map
2441 Mountain Parkway, mile 8.4, 8.9: Drakes Formation (Od).  View Geologic Map
2440 Mountain Parkway, mile 6.5, Calloway Creek (Occ) Limestone.  View Geologic Map
2439 Mountain Parkway, mile 3.5, 3.8, 5.1, 5.7: Garrard Siltstone (Og), with flow rolls.  View Geologic Map
2438 Mountain Parkway, mile 2.8, 3.2: Clays Ferry Fm (Ocf): interbedded limestone and clay shale. Weathers to form a hilly terrain.   View Geologic Map
2437 Millersburg (Olm) Member of the Lexington Limestone above the Strodes Creek Member of the Lexington Limestone (Olsc) at mile 0.2 on the Mountain Parkway.  View Geologic Map
2436 Fracture orientations using Rose diagram for zach_ky11_01.  View Geologic Map
2435 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone. Exposure is in the upthrown block of the Glencairn Fault.  View Geologic Map
2434 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone. This exposure is in the upthrown block of the Glencairn Fault.  View Geologic Map
2433 Fractures in Pikeville Formation.  View Geologic Map
2432 Fractures in Pikeville formation.  View Geologic Map
2431 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2430 A mini-arch forming in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2429 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2428 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2427 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2426 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2425 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2424 Fractures in shale of Pikeville Formation along KY 715 near Rogers, KY.  View Geologic Map
2423 Fractures in shale of Pikeville Formation along KY 715 near Rogers, KY.  View Geologic Map
2422 Fractures in Pikeville Formation along KY 715 near Rogers, KY.  View Geologic Map
2421 Fractures in Pikeville Formation along KY 715 near Rogers, KY.  View Geologic Map
2420 Support beams for abandoned railroad tunnel.  View Geologic Map
2419 Support beams for abandoned railroad tunnel.  View Geologic Map
2418 Loading structures in Corbin Sandstone in abandoned railroad tunnel.  View Geologic Map
2417 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone and underlying Grundy Formation.  View Geologic Map
2416 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2415 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone  View Geologic Map
2414 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone  View Geologic Map
2413 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2412 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2411 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone  View Geologic Map
2410 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone  View Geologic Map
2409 Fractures in the Corbin Sandstone  View Geologic Map
2407 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone along KY 11.  View Geologic Map
2406 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone along KY 11.  View Geologic Map
2404 Fractures in Corbin Sandstone along KY 11.  View Geologic Map
2403 Possible splay fault related to the Glencairn Fault.  View Geologic Map
2402 Mine entrance off Glencairn Rd in Wolfe County.  View Geologic Map
2401 Corbin Sandstone forms resistant cliffs at Mill Creek Lake in Powell and Wolfe Counties.  View Geologic Map
2399 Exposure of the Borden and Slade Formations at Mill Creek Lake in Powell County.  View Geologic Map
2398 Elk herd in the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area. Two million visitors a year come to the 170,000 acres and 300 miles of undeveloped shoreline to experience the beauty and wildlife of the region. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2393 Looking south at the full section of the Ordovician Fairview Formation capped by the Grant Lake Limestone and a thin section of Kope Formation at the base. This important cut is at the former tunnel of the CSX railroad just off KY-384 in southwestern Carroll County, KY.   View Geologic Map
2392 Looking northeast at the Salem Limestone (Mississippian) - here mostly calcareous flaggy shales and some limestone beds - in the former RV park along Paddy's Bluff Road west of Dycusburg, Crittenden County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2391 Looking southeast at the Grant Lake Limestone (Ordovician) on the Prot Royal Road east of Turners Station, Henry County, KY. Note thin rubble beds.  View Geologic Map
2387 Looking south at the No. 1 Lock and Dam on the Kentucky River south of Carrollton, Carroll County, Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2386 Looking southeast up the shallow embayment of Seele Creek in northeastern Gallatin County, KY. This embayment was formed by the construction of McAlpine Dam (pool stage 455 ft) below nearby Warsaw.  View Geologic Map
2385 Looking south into Big Little South Fork, a tributary to Mud Creek, from Ryle Road, Boone County, KY. The large valley in the foreground is Mud Creek. Hills are underlain by Kope Formation.  View Geologic Map
2384 Looking southease up the valley of Mud Creek from Ryle Road, western Boone County Kentucky. Hills are underlain by Kope Formation. Valley contains lacustrine deposits, glacial outwash, and alluvium.  View Geologic Map
2383 Looking south across the Ohio River into Boone County Kentucky and up the valley of Sand Creek from Cliff Road, Miami Twp., western Hamilton County, OH. Foreground is modern river Alluvium and glacial outwash. Background is Kope Formation capped by loess deposits.  View Geologic Map
2379 Looking upstream along the Ohio River toward Anderson Ferry at the Illinois-age narrows of the Ohio River from St. Andrews Road, Ashton Oaks Subdivision, North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio.  View Geologic Map
2378 Circular scarp of rotational slide in loess at edge of bluff in Columbus State Park, Ballard County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2377 Looking southwest across the Mississippi River from Memorial Park on US-51 into Missouri just south of Wickliffe, Ballard County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2376 Flat upland on Lafayette Gravel from US-641 just north of Hazel, Calloway County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2375 Block of ferruginous Lafayette Gravel in abandoned pit on north side of KY-121 east of Wickliffe, Ballard County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2374 Looking downstream and west across the Ohio River into the low Holocene shore of Kentucky from Newburgh, Warrick County, IN.  View Geologic Map
2373 Historical marker about diamonds in Kentucky on KY-55 just north of Olga, Russell County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2372 Historical marker about diamonds in Kentucky on KY-55 just north of Olga, Russell County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2371 Historical markers in Memorial Park just south of Wickliffe, Ballard County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2370 Looking southwest from Woodland Mound County Park across the Ohio River into Kentucky at a high terrace formed by the ancestral Ohio River above Melbourne, Campbell County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2369 Looking north at abandoned channel of the Mississippi River near the junctin of KY-94 and KY-311, south of Hickman, Fulton County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2368 Looking northwest up the Mississippi River from Fort Jefferson south of Wickliffe, Ballard County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2367 Looking southeast across the Ohio River at Manchester Island No2. and the distant Kentucky shore (Lewis County) from the ramp just east of Manchester, Adams County, Ohio. Island is mapped as Older Ohio River Alluvium.  View Geologic Map
2366 Lafayette-type gravel with abundant iron cement in abandoned pit on the north side of KY-121 about three miles southeast of Wickliffe, McCracken County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2364 Shallow, shale filled channel near the top of the Big Clifty Sandstone (Mississippian) at type section just northeast of US-62 bridge over Clifty Creek east of Big Clifty, Grayson County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2363 Channel sandstone in the Pennsylvanian Shelburn Formation showing irregular inclined, lateral offlap. West lane of Western Kentucky Parkway in Muhlenberg County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2362 Shallow channel filled with inclined, shaley beds of the Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation on the eastern side of KY-67 just north of Exit 178 of I-64, Carter County, KY. Inclined beds result from syn-sedimentary slumping attributed to channel bank collapse.  View Geologic Map
2361 Goddard Covered Bridge over Sand Lick Creek, 8 miles southeast of Flemingsburg, along KY-32. Restored in Summer 2006. Sand Lick Creek flows across alluvial valley developed on Preachersville Member of Drakes Formation (Ordovician). Adjacent geology comprised of Silurian Crab Orchard Group members, Drowning Creek Formation (Brassfield Dolomite) and Estill Shale. Nearby Knobs (in background) comprised of Devonian Ohio Shale, and Mississippian Borden Formation.  View Geologic Map
2360 Normal fault passes to bedding plane fault in Princess Formation (Pennsylvanian) on north side of I-64 at Milepoint 178, Carter County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2359 Small, symmetrical channel (4 x 30 m) of Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation, cut into underlying siltstone-shale interbeds, has thin coal at base and is filled with shaly siltstone and dark gray shale. Westbound lane of I-64 about 3 miles east of Olive Hill exit in Carter County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2358 Cut in Chesterian rocks on the Western Kentucky Parkway just east of the Princton Exit, Caldwell County, KY. (See Trace, 1981)  View Geologic Map
2357 Looking south-southwest at terrace capped by loess at former temporary course of the Ohio River at Melbourne, Kenton County, KY. Taken from overlook at Woodland Mound County Park, eastern Hamilton County, OH. Notice the lower level directly behind Melbourne.  View Geologic Map
2356 Agricultural land on Quaternary Loess deposits. Looking west from US-641 just north of Hazel, Calloway County, KY.  View Geologic Map
2355 Looking southeast from the cemetery of St. Mary's Church on Alexander Road across watershed of Grassy Creek, a tributary to the Licking River in southern Kenton County, KY. Area underlain by Ordovician Kope and Fairview Formations.  View Geologic Map
2354 Looking north down the wide valley of the Licking River from near St. Mary's Church on the Alexander Road in southeastern Campbell County, Ky. Bedrock units are composed mainly of Ordovician Kope and Fairview Formations.  View Geologic Map
2353 Looking west across the Ohio River toward the village of Silver Grove in Campbell County, KY. Silver Grove sits on Ohio River alluvium. The area behind the village is underlain primarily by Ordovician Kope and Fairview Formations.  View Geologic Map
2352 Bart Davidson rapelling from Natural Arch in McCreary County.  View Geologic Map
2351 Rapelling off Natural Arch in McCreary County.  View Geologic Map
2350 Joints and folded bedding in limestone near fault associated with the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2349 Joint sets in limestone in downthrown block of the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2348 Joint sets in limestone in downthrown block of the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2347 Joint sets in limestone in downthrown block of the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2345 Fracturing (joints and faults) of limestone in the downthrown block of the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2344 Kink fold related to movement along the Kentucky River Fault System in the Camp Nelson Limestone along U.S. 27 south of the Kentucky River in Garrard County.  View Geologic Map
2343 Systematic jointing in limestone near the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2342 Fracturing (joints and faults) of limestone in the downthrown block of the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2341 Fracturing (joints and faults) of limestone along the Kentucky River Fault System. The Lexington Limestone (left) is downthrown from the Camp Nelson Limestone (right).  View Geologic Map
2340 Offset joints due to folding of limestone near the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2339 Systematic jointing in limestone near the Kentucky River Fault System.  View Geologic Map
2338 Joint sets in limestone.  View Geologic Map
2337 Joint sets in limestone.  View Geologic Map
2336 Joint sets in limestone.  View Geologic Map
2335 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
2334 Joint sets in weathered shale.  View Geologic Map
2333 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and weathered shale.  View Geologic Map
2332 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
2331 Joint sets in shale exposed in drainage along KY 32.  View Geologic Map
2330 Joint sets in weathered shale  View Geologic Map
2329 Joint sets in sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2327 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
2326 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
2325 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
2324 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
2323 Joint sets in weathered sandstone.  View Geologic Map
2322 Joint sets in interbedded sandstone and shale.  View Geologic Map
2320 Cross bedded sandstone of the Lee Formation along KY 7 at Little Sandy River  View Geologic Map
2319 Looking north along an exposed point bar on the east side of the Mississippi River in Hickman County.  View Geologic Map
2318 Looking west at bar along Mississippi River in Fall of 1983. Medley Bar in distance.  View Geologic Map
2317 Exposed bar on Mississippi River in fall of 1983. Wolf Island in background.  View Geologic Map
2316 Large crossbed foreset in Rockcastle Sandstone Mbr. in stream below Laurel River Dam, Whitley-Laurel County line.  View Geologic Map
2315 Looking southeast across the valley of the Licking River from KY-177 near Ryland Heights, Campbell County, Kentucky. Foreground underlain by Ordovician Fairview and Kope Formations.  View Geologic Map
2314 Close up of lithology of Ordovician Cumberland Formation. Chattanooga Shale in upper part of photo.  View Geologic Map
2313 Contact of Chattanooga Shale and Cumberland Formation on Kentucky 379 west of Creelsboro, Russell County, Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2312 Looking downstream Back Creek at typical exposure of Ordovician Cumberland Formation, southwest Russell County, Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2311 Silurian-Ordovician contact with small bioherm on north lane of I-75 north of Exit 77, Madison County, Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2310 Looking downstream at the Cumberland River at larger than normal stage from the landing of Windfry Ferry, far southwestern Russell County, Kentucky. Geology in background ranges from Ordovician Cumberland Formation to Mississippian Fort Payne.  View Geologic Map
2309 Prominant joint sets in New Albany Shale in pit on south side of MacDonald Knob, west of I-65.  View Geologic Map
2308 Contact between Cowbell and Nancy Members of the Borden Formation in Casey County, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
2307 Looking into Missouri along a large side bar on the Mississippi River in Fulton County, Kentucky. Note mudflat in front of bar.  View Geologic Map
2306 Mudcracks in flat in front of side bar on Mississippi River between miles 909 and 910.  View Geologic Map
2305 Uniformly spaced, flat bedded small dunes (megaripples) in small shute of side bar on Mississippi River in Fulton County, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
2304 Towhead bar of Island No. 8 on Mississippi River, about 8 miles downstream from Hickman, Fulton County, Kentucky. Guage at Cairo, Illinois was about 13 feet.  View Geologic Map
2303 Upstream of Ohio River levee in front of Covington from sidewalk of the CSX Highway bridge in Kenton County, Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
2302 Depositional anticline (inter lobe dip) in the Borden Formation on the Joe Prather Parkway, Bullitt County, Kentucky 
2301 Inclined master bedding plane in Fort Payne Reef limestone in abandoned Shamrock Quarry, Adair County, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
2300 Lafayette Gravel pit southeast of Murray, Graves County, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
2299 Cowbell and Nancy Members of Borden Formation at thick section near intersection of KY-313 and KY-434 in Hardin County, Kentucky  View Geologic Map
2298 Iron staining, or "liesegang" in the Corbin Sandstone near Battleship Rock at Natural Bridge in Powell County.  View Geologic Map
2297 Fat Man's Misery is a fracture in the Corbin Sandstone from which Natural Bridge is formed.  View Geologic Map
2296 Natural Bridge in Powell County as seen from Lookout Point.  View Geologic Map
2295 Underside of Natural Bridge in Powell County (near Slade).  View Geologic Map
2291 Using sinkholes for waste disposal, even in rural areas, can threaten valuable water resources in Woodford County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2290 The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service provides cost sharing to farmers through the Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) to help them address natural resource concerns. In this case, water quality is protected by maintaining a buffer area around the pond. Photo courtesy of Charles Farmer, USDA—NRCS.  
2289 Stormwater management is a significant issue for development in the karst areas of the Inner Bluegrass Region. This stormwater detention basin was developed around a natural sinkhole. The dam is to the left. The outlet throat of the sinkhole incorporates a sand filter. Sinkholes are often part of the natural flood detention system, and must be managed carefully to avoid creating additional flood damages as a result of development. Photo courtesy of Pattie Wilson, Versailles-Midway-Woodford County Planning Commission.  View Geologic Map
2288 Wolfe County is known for its natural beauty, and the Red River Gorge Geological Area is one of the most beautiful areas in the county. Arches, "rockhouses" (precursors to arches), and natural amphitheaters abound. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2287 Wolfe County is known for its natural beauty, and the Red River Gorge Geological Area is one of the most beautiful areas in the county. Arches, "rockhouses" (precursors to arches), and natural amphitheaters abound. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association.  View Geologic Map
2286 Wolfe County, an area of 223 square miles, was formed in the Eastern Coalfield in 1860. The highest elevation, 1,460 feet, is on a ridge near the Breathitt County line, 3.5 miles southwest of Lee City. The lowest elevation, 650 feet, is where the county boundary crosses a meander of the North Fork of the Kentucky River. The 2005 population of 6,875 (31 people per square mile) was 2.7 percent smaller than the population in 2000. Photo by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2285 Clay and coal from the Hyden Formation are important to the economy of the Whitley County. Mountaintop-removal coal mining is seen here near Pine Mountain. Balancing economic and environmental goals is sometimes difficult. Photo by Bethany Overfield, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
2284 Faults have been mapped at the surface around Jeptha Knob in the southeastern part of the county. The ring of faults at Jeptha Knob were most likely formed from the eroded remnants of an ancient meteor or comet impact (www.uky.edu/KGS/education/meteorites.htm). The impact is interpreted to have formed more than 440 million years ago. It resulted in bedrock being uplifted in some fault blocks that were more resistant to erosion than surrounding rock layers. Over time, Jeptha Knob was formed in the resistant layers. There is no seismic activity associated with these faults. Because Jeptha Knob is the highest point in the county (1,163 feet above sea level), it has been used as the location for several radio and cell towers. Image courtesy of Mark Thompson.  View Geologic Map
2283 Looking toward Jeptha Knob in Shelby County from 3 miles east on U.S. 60. Photo courtesy of Mark F. Thompson, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2282 Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky lies on 1,300 acres north of Georgetown. The plant has 7.5 million square feet under roof. The 7,000 team members have built 6,622,114 vehicles since 1988. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2281 The timber industry contributes to the local economy in Rowan County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2280 Alluvial valleys provide flat land for agriculture, housing, and commerce in Rowan County, but may be subject to drainage and flooding problems. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2279 The new shopping mall along Ky. 80 in Hazard is directly in front of a surface coal mine. Many former coal-mine benches such as this are being developed in Perry County, some for residential use and others for commercial use. Previous auger mining holes drilled into a coal bed behind the Lowe's building. Photos by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2278 Geese on Cave Run Lake in Morgan County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2277 Construction aggregate is quarried from the Salem-Warsaw Limestone in the Monroe Quarry. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2276 Maintenance of clean water is essential for public water systems, groundwater, aquatic wildlife, recreation, swimming in the creek in McCreary County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2275 Drainage management and roadway support are mandatory in steep slope areas that are common in McCreary County, particularly if shale units are encountered. Photo by Randy Paylor, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2274 Retaining walls are often needed for slope stability for construction in steeply sloping areas of McCreary County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  
2273 Coal has been central to the Martin County economy. From 1879 to 2004, 391 million tons were produced: 202 million from underground and 189 million from surface mining. Production declined from a high of 18.1 million tons in 1985 to 6.4 million tons in 2004. Surface mining has changed the face of Martin County. Post-mining land uses have included a federal prison, regional airport, and regional industrial park. Construction on reclaimed areas may require measures to prevent differential settlement of foundations. Aerial photos from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Farm Services Administration, National Aerial Imagery Program, 2004. 
2269 Deer and humans share the land in Martin County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2266 From 1889 to 2004, Magoffin County produced 56.4 million tons of coal: 46.9 million tons from surface mining and 9.4 million tons from deep mining. Peak production was in 1981, 4.2 million tons. Production in 2004 was 851,299 tons from surface mines. Ongoing and previous mountaintop mining near Tiptop and Duco is seen in the aerial photo (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program, 2004).  
2265 About 4,900 people, 35 percent of Magoffin County, rely on private domestic water supplies: 4,700 use wells and 200 use hauled water, cisterns, and other sources. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2263 Lizard basking in Magoffin County sunshine. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2262 Deer and man live together in Magoffin County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2261 Lincoln County, an area of 336 square miles in the Outer Bluegrass and Eastern Pennyroyal Regions, was formed in 1780 as one of Kentucky's three original counties. Muldraugh Hill, which runs south of Crab Orchard, Stanford, and Hustonville, is the most conspicuous topographic feature. The highest elevation, 1,440 feet, is a knob near the Casey County line about 3 miles northwest of Moreland. The lowest elevation, 760 feet, is where the Dix River leaves the county. The county population in 2006 was 25,439, 8.9 percent greater than that of 2000. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2260 The pace of life is slower in the Lincoln County countryside, out of the fast lane. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2259 Groundwater is the primary water source for most residents of Letcher County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geolgical Survey. 
2256 Deer share the land with the human residents of Letcher County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2255 The city park behind the courthouse in Hyden is an excellent example of the use of floodprone land for recreational purposes. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2254 Deer share the land in Lee County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2253 Geese on Yatesville Lake in Lawrence County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2252 The Hal Rogers and Cumberland Gap Parkways and I-75 provide major transportation arteries for local industry. Shale in the Pikeville Formation lines the road. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
2251 A family of geese on an outing to Laurel River Lake for outdoor recreation. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2250 Sinkholes dimple the karst landscape between Ky. 210 and Ky. 1607 north of Hodgenville in Larue County. Development in karst areas requires careful planning to prevent pollution of groundwater and drinking-water sources. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
2249 Deer greet the visitor to field and forest in Knox County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2247 The Barbourville Recreation Park offers a wave pool, lazy river pool, water slide, fishing, paddle boats, putt-putt golf, exercise and walking tracks, tennis courts, sports fields, playground, picnic shelters, RV hook-ups, a wedding chapel, and more! Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2246 A drought in eastern Kentucky leaves the Cumberland River, seen from the Ky. 225 bridge, with low-water riffles and bars. The river, together with Laurel Lake, provides water to Barbourville Water & Electric. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2245 Union College, a liberal arts United Methodist college with 600 undergraduate and 300 graduate students, was founded in Barbourville in 1879. It has 20 buildings on a 100-acre campus. The faculty-to-student ratio is 1:13. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2244 Knox County, 388 square miles in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, was formed in 1800. The area is generally mountainous. The highest elevation, 2,322 feet, is on a peak near the Knox-Bell County line about 2 miles southsouthwest of Kayjay. The difference in elevation between this peak and the valley of Brush Creek, 1 mile east, is more than 1,100 feet. The lowest elevation, 890 feet, is where Collins Fork leaves the county. The 2006 population of 31,973 was 0.6 percent greater than that of 2000. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2243 Hollow fills are a vestige of mining operations on hilltops in the east. Coal has made a significant contribution to the local economy: 75.3 million tons, 25.5 million tons from surface mines and 34.5 million tons from underground mines, was produced from 1890–2004. Photo by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Aerial Imagery Program (2004). 
2242 Photos from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administartion, National Agricultural Imagery Program, show Knott County as seen from the air in 2004. 
2241 The South Fork of the Licking River, seen here winding through Cynthiana, has carved a wide alluvial valley in central Harrision County. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program. 
2240 Butterfly on thistle on reclaimed mine site in Harlan County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2239 Greensburg (left), the county seat, was designated in 2004 as a Preserve America community. Preserve America communities demonstrate that they are committed to preserving America’s heritage while ensuring a future filled with opportunities for learning and enjoyment. This designation provides strong incentives for continued preservation of the city’s cultural and natural heritage resources. Photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  
2238 Limestone from the Fort Payne Formation is extracted for construction aggregate at this quarry south of Greensburg. Photo above by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2236 Flooding in a karst basin. Sinkhole swallets and solution channels are not large enough to carry off the water after a large storm. The problem is exacerbated by development. Often the only solution is to relocate the homes out of the karst floodplain. Photograph courtesy of Jim Rebmann, Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government. 
2235 The Little Sandy River undercuts the Corbin Sandstone Member of the Lee Formation at this peaceful bend in Sandy Hook in Elliott County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2234 The lumber industry is contributes to the economy of Clinton County. Photo by Jeff Adams, Don Molden Multiple Services Inc. 
2233 Development and agriculture in the Clay County, as in Oneida and surroundings shown here, are confined almost exclusively to the broad stream valleys. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
2232 The World Peace Bell in Newport, Campbell County, was cast in 1998 in Annecy, France, and at 33 tons is the largest swinging bell in the world. It was cast to honor the onset of the new millennium, and is rung on important occasions. It is 12 feet in diameter, made of 80 percent copper and 20 percent tin, and is in the key of A. It is a major tourist attraction in northern Kentucky. Photo by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2231 The county-owned 900-acre A. J. Jolly Park includes an 18-hole golf course, a 200-acre fishing lake, nine ball fields and four soccer fields, play equipment, campgrounds, a bird sanctuary, a handicapped accessible boat and fishing pier, and public and private picnic areas. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Agriculture Department, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
2230 An earthen levy was constructed around this low-lying row-crop field to hold back floodwater from the Green River in Butler County. 
2229 Commercial parks and development are common in the flat land in the northern part of the Bullitt County and along the Interstate. Likewise, there has been considerable suburban residential growth in these areas because of the county’s proximity to Louisville. New developments require water sources, storm drainage, sewers, power lines, roads, and other infrastructure. Adequate sewage disposal is an important consideration in this county, because much of the bedrock and alluvium is unsuited for septic tank or cesspool methods of disposal. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2228 The Captain Anthony Meldahl Lock and Dam near Foster in Bracken County at mile 436.2 on the Ohio River is one link in the river transportation system operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2227 The wrinkled brow of a hillside stripped of trees in Bracken County. Waves of soil, loosened by cattle grazing, rainfall, freezing, and thawing, slide slowly downslope. Vertical furrows are incipient gulleys. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2226 The Catlettsburg-Boyd Optimist Club Community Park on Ky. 3 near Mavity in Boyd County is a good example of using floodplain areas for recreational purposes. This park is constructed on the floodplain of the East Fork of the Little Sandy River, in the background. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2225 Dredging sand and gravel from glacial outwash at Martin-Marietta Aggregates in Boone County. Photo by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2224 Front-end loader works in the glacial outwash at the Bellevue Sand and Gravel Inc. pit in Boone County. Photo by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2223 Lizard sunning on the conglomeritic sandstone member of the Lee Formation hogback on Pine Mountain in Bell County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2222 Deer, Bell County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2221 The 2,700-foot-long, 148-foot-high Cave Run Lake Dam was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1974. The lake provides flood control and recreation. The recreation pool is 8,270 acres and 48.1 miles long. Below the dam lies the Minor E. Clark Fish Hatchery, one of the largest state-owned, warm-water fish hatcheries in the country. Three to 4 million bass, muskelunge, and walleye fingerlings from the hatchery are released every year into Kentucky lakes, rivers, and suitable streams. Knobs are seen in the background. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2220 Highwall in the Ste. Genevieve Limestone at the Glasgow Quarry can be seen from a distance. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2219 Sinkholes and sinkhole ponds dimple the landscape—typical of karst limestone country east of Cave City in Barren County. Photo (2004) by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  
2218 Anderson County, 203 square miles in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky, was formed in 1827. The terrain ranges from rolling Inner Bluegrass in the east to hilly Outer Bluegrass in the west. Elevations range from 469 feet where the Kentucky River leaves the county, to 940 feet along the ridge adjacent to Ky. 749, about 2.5 miles south of Fox Creek. The 2005 population of 20,199 was 5.7 percent larger than the 2000 population. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2217 The Kentucky River, seen here from the Martha Layne Collins Bluegrass Parkway bridge, forms the eastern border of Anderson County. It provides water for the Lawrenceburg Municipal Water and Sewer Department, which serves nearly 80 percent of the county's residents. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
2216 Limestone members of the Lexington Limestone may contain strata mixed with shale, which is more erodable, as seen in this roadcut along the Martha Layne Collins Bluegrass Parkway near the Kentucky River. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
2215 Silurian Louisville Limestone exposed along Ky. 100 near the Barren River in Allen County.   View Geologic Map
2214 Aerial view (2004) of Gaddie Shamrock quarry in Adair County by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
2213 Limestone soils in Adair County support a strong agricultural economy, including specialty operations such as the tree farm below. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2212 Coal mining continues to be a vital part of the Webster County economy. Approximately 3 percent of Webster County has been strip mined and 25 percent of the county has been deep mined for coal. 337 million tons of coal were mined in the county from 1869 to 2004,87 percent from underground mines. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2211 The population of Webster County grew 1.2 percent between 1990 and 2000. New residential areas have recently become a growing land use in certain parts of the county. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2210 The topography of Webster County ranges from flat, narrow lowlands to very steep-sloped uplands. The elevation ranges from 340 to 630 feet above mean sea level. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2209 Walker Lake in Webster County. The county is blessed with an abundance of water. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2208 Approximately 190 chicken houses are in Webster County. Each house holds five to six flocks per year. One flock equals about 27,000 birds. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crop fields. Proper nutrient management is extremely important to ensure that local soil and water resources are not impaired. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2207 Along with row crop agriculture, harvesting hardwood trees for furniture and pulp is a sustained land use in Webster County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2206 Agriculture is a major part of the Webster County economy. In 2002, 72,528 acres (34 percent) of the 215,161 acres available were planted in corn, soybeans and tobacco. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2205 Coal mining continues to be a vital part of the Union County economy. This conveyor was constructed by Nashville Coal in the early 1950's. The belt was started on March 3, 1953, and carried 15 tons per minute for a half mile through Union County. Nearly 4.4 million tons of coal was taken from underground mines in 2004; 310 million tons of coal were mined from 1836 to 2004, 99 percent by underground mining. 
2204 Farmers use groundwater to irrigate their crops in bottomlands along the Ohio River in Union County. The alluvium along the Ohio River is the best source of groundwater in the county. In the northern and western edges of the county, nearly all drilled wells less than 150 feet deep in the alluvium of the Ohio River valley are adequate for domestic use. Most wells yield more than 50 gallons per minute, and some yield as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. In over half of Union County most wells that penetrate sandstone formations less than 300 feet are adequate for a domestic supply. In the highlands of the southeastern part of the county, in the old Camp Breckinridge area, and in the Grundy Hill area southwest of Uniontown, only a few wells yield enough water for a domestic supply. In a thin, highly faulted zone running east-west across the county between the towns of Givens and The Rocks, yields to drilled wells are unpredictable because of the faulting. Generally, groundwater is hard to very hard, and iron and salt may be present in objectionable amounts. Often groundwater becomes saltier with depth. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2203 Oil well pump jacks are located throughout Union County. More than 1,300 producing oil wells have been completed, producing 85 million barrels of oil. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2202 The topography of Union County ranges from flat bottomlands along the Ohio River to rolling uplands with steep slopes. Generally, steep slope areas are not suitable for row crops, and are used for pasture. In 2003 there were approximately 18,000 head of cattle in Union County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2201 Cattle feeding shelters, like the one above located on Gough Farms, are being used by farmers in Union County to minimize manure concentrations on the land surface. These shelters help reduce nutrient contamination in surface water and groundwater. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2200 Agriculture is a major part of the Union County economy. Of the 218,343 acres in Union County, 128,000 (59 percent) were planted with either corn or soybeans in 2002. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2199 The Uniontown levee in Union County was constructed to hold back Ohio River floodwaters. An earthen levee also protects the city of Sturgis. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2198 Two developed industrial parks are in Trigg County, and one park is under construction. Eleven businesses are located on 230 acres. Photograph by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2197 The population of Trigg County grew 21.6 percent between 1990 and 2000, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Because of this growth, home construction is growing throughout the county. Photograph by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2196 Agriculture is a major land use in Trigg County. In 2002, 445 acres of burley tobacco (light green above) and 475 acres of dark fired tobacco (dark green above) were grown. Also, out of the 269,658 acres available in Trigg County, 36,700 (14 percent) were planted in corn and soybeans. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2195 Lake Barkley was formed when the Cumberland River was impounded in the early 1960's. Over 18,500 acres of the lake are in Trigg County. Lake Barkley is an excellent resource for boating, fishing, and other activities. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2194 Land Between the Lakes is an inland peninsula that was formed after the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers were impounded to create Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley. In 1963 the area was deemed a National Recreation Area. Approximately 68,800 of the Land Between the Lake's 170,000 acres are in Trigg County. Photograph by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2193 Todd County lies primarily within two physiographic regions. Northern Todd is in the hilly Clifty Region. Southern Todd is in the Western Pennyroyal Region. The boundary between these two regions is very abrupt, as seen above. The tree-covered hill represents the uplands region, and the gently rolling cornfield represents the karst plain region. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2192 There are approximately 30 chicken houses in Todd County; most are breeder houses. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crops. Proper nutrient management is extremely important to ensure that local soil and water resources are not impaired. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2191 With 22,000 head of cattle (total cattle and calves) and 40 dairies, pasture fields are a major land use in Todd County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2190 Agriculture is a major part of the Todd County economy. In 2002, 89,775 acres (37 percent) of the 241,280 acres available were planted in corn, soybeans, and tobacco. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2189 Localized flash flooding can occur throughout Todd County and should be considered during any type of land-use planning, such as home construction. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2188 Because of thin soil cover and hilly topography in certain areas of Todd County, rock excavation is required during road and other types of construction. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey.  
2187 Agriculture is important to Simpson County. In 2002, 71,121 acres (47 percent) of the 151,252 acres available were planted in corn, soybeans, and tobacco. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2186 Manufacturing is growing in Simpson County. In the Sanders Interstate Industrial Park there are currently three active businesses, with about 550 employees, and one under construction. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2185 The population of Simpson County grew 8 percent between 1990 and 2000. Residential areas are a growing land use in the county. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2184 The West Fork of Drakes Creek provides the drinking-water supply for the 16,000 residents of the city of Franklin in Simpson County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2183 The red Mountview silt loam pictured is a dominant soil type in Simpson County. Because of the high clay content, soil excavation during road and other types of construction may be necessary. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2181 Pilot Knob (background), with an elevation of 928 feet above mean sea level, is the highest point in Simpson County. Most of the county consists of broad, gently rolling plains. The elevation ranges from 590 to 928 feet above mean sea level. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2180 The D.B. Wilson plant in Ohio County is one of 22 coal-fired electric generating plants in Kentucky. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2179 A culturally significant location in Ohio County is the home place of Bill Monroe, "The Father of Bluegrass Music." The Monroe home place is on Jerusalem Ridge, just west of Rosine. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2178 Coal mining continues to be a vital part of the Ohio County economy. Extensive surface and underground mining has occurred in southern Ohio County. Since 1865, the county has produced over 270 million tons of coal, 185 million by surface mining. Oil and gas are valuable natural resources in northern Ohio County. The county has produced 50 million barrels of oil and 360 million cubic feet of natural gas. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2177 The Bluegrass Crossings Business Centre is a 1,100-acre multicounty industrial park in Ohio County. The park is supported by Daviess, Hancock, McLean, Muhlenberg, and Ohio Counties. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2176 Along with row-crop agriculture, harvesting hardwood trees for furniture and pulp is a sustained land use in Ohio County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2175 Cattle feeding shelters, like this one on Patton Farms, are being used by farmers in Ohio County to minimize manure concentrations on the land surface. These shelters help prevent nutrient contamination of surface water and groundwater. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2174 Ohio County has approximately 150 chicken houses. Each houses five to six flocks, about 27,000 birds each, per year. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crops. Proper nutrient management is extremely important to ensure that local soil and water resources are not impaired. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2173 Agriculture is a major part of the Ohio County economy. In 2002, 52,015 acres (14 percent) of the 381,382 acres available were planted in corn, soybeans, and tobacco. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2172 The fishing is good below the outlet spillway of Lake Malone in the Sandstone Hills Region of Muhlenberg County. The lake is surrounded by 50-foot Caseyville Formation sandstone bluffs and hardwood forests with hiking trails.   View Geologic Map
2171 Residential homes are an important land use in Muhlenberg County. Siting of homes and infrastructure requires an understanding of soils and geology. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2170 Constructed in the late 1950’s, Lake Malone covers an area of approximately 825 acres in Muhlenberg, Logan, and Todd Counties. The lake was made possible by the local game and fishing clubs and is currently the only major water recreational site in the three-county area. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2169 A typical cypress swamp in the Cypress Creek drainage in Muhlenberg County. Cypress Creek is in the Green River–Southern Wabash Lowlands ecoregion, which is characterized by meandering, low-gradient streams and rivers with wide floodplains and soft substrates. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2168 Along with row crop agriculture and coal mining, harvesting hardwood trees for furniture and pulp is a sustained land use in Muhlenburg County. Photograph by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2167 Agriculture is a major part of the Muhlenberg County economy. There are 305,894 acres in the county, and 32,022 of those acres (10 percent) were planted with either corn, soybeans, or tobacco in 2002. Approximately 60 chicken houses (background) are in the county. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crops. Proper nutrient management is extremely important to ensure that local soil and water resources are not impaired. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2166 The Tennessee Valley Authority Paradise Plant, located on the Green River in Muhlenberg County, is one of 22 coal-fired electric generating plants in Kentucky. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2165 Coal mining continues to be a vital part of the Muhlenberg County economy. Surface and underground mines in the county have produced over 750 million tons of coal since 1820. With nearly 1,000 wells, oil and gas production also provides an important resource to the county. The county has produced 21 million barrels of oil and 2.9 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2164 Agriculture is a major part of the McLean County economy. According to the Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service, 129,175 acres (79 percent) of the 164,045 acres available were planted in corn, soybeans and tobacco in 2002-03. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2163 Approximately 340 chicken houses are in McLean County. Each house holds five to six flocks per year. One flock equals about 27,000 birds. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crop fields. Proper nutrient management is extremely important to ensure that local soil and water resources are not impaired. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2162 The Perdue grain elevator and poultry feed mill located at Livermore in McLean County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2161 The Green River Lock and Dam No. 2 at Calhoun. The Green River is the major drinking-water supply for the residents of McLean County. Groundwater is also used by rural residents for drinking water. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2160 This wooden railroad bridge, located in Island, was constructed in 1872 and was relocated to the Island Wooden Bridge Park in 2001. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2159 The topography of McLean County ranges from flat broad lowlands to very steep-sloped uplands. The elevation ranges from approximately 370 to 610 feet above mean sea level. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2158 Along with row crop agriculture, harvesting hardwood trees for furniture and pulp is a sustained land use in McLean County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2157 Twin Rivers Inc. is a manufacturer of high-quality hardwood furniture. This facility is located in Livermore, McLean County, which is historically known for the manufacturing of hardwood furniture. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2156 This 12.5-mile floodwall was constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the 1937 flood to prevent future flooding in Paducah. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2155 The 333 sign below the bank clock was below water during the 1937 flood. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2154 This photo of the 1937 flood in Paducah was taken before the Ohio River crested on February 2, 1937. Floodwaters covered more than 90 percent of the city, and flood damage exceeded $22 million. Photo courtesy of the William Clark Market House Museum. 
2153 Groundwater is a valuable resource to residents, industry, and farmers in McCracken County. This 6.5-acre tomato farm uses groundwater for drip irrigation. Proper resource management and planning will be essential to preserving good groundwater quality in McCracken County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2151 Groundwater is a valuable resource to residents, industry, and farmers in McCracken County. Kight Pecan Orchard, the largest pecan orchard in the state (80 acres) uses groundwater for drip irrigation. Proper resource management and planning will be essential to preserving good groundwater quality in McCracken County. Photos by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2150 Ohio Valley Gravel and Sand Company quarry in McCracken County. This quarry is the most productive sand and gravel quarry in the eight-county Jackson Purchase Region. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2149 Metropolis Lake is a natural lake in the Wabash-Ohio Bottomlands Ecoregion along the Ohio River. Metropolis Lake is currently contaminated with PCB's and mercury, which demonstrates why industrial planning is necessary. Because of the large percentage of flat to gently sloping areas associated with the Ohio River, development, such as subdivisions, can cause flooding if proper drainage designs are not implemented as part of the planning and development process. Watersheds can also be impaired from improper sewage treatment and urban and industrial runoff. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey.  
2148 Parts of Marshall County are prone to flooding, as seen in this photo of a bridge crossing Cypress Creek, in the northern part of the county. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2147 Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge comprises over 7,000 acres and is the only National Wildlife Refuge solely located within the state of Kentucky. The refuge begins just southeast of Benton and extends nearly to Paducah, but the majority of the refuge is within Marshall County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2146 Many manufacturing companies have located in the Calvert City Industrial Complex because of the excellent transportation routes (Ohio and Tennessee Rivers and railroad and Interstate highway access) and the inexpensive hydroelectric power produced by Kentucky Dam. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2145 The 60-year-old Kentucky Lake Dam, constructed by the Tennessee Valley Authority on the Tennessee River, is 206 feet high and 8,422 feet long. Kentucky Lake provides flood protection to millions of acres on the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Kentucky Dam also produces hydroelectric power, and has a generating capacity of 184,000 kilowatts. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2144 Sinkholes and soil erosion are two major issues to consider in land-use planning in Lyon County. Both are encountered at the Lee Jones Lyon County Recreational Park. The above baseball field is being moved because of the formation of a small sinkhole in the old infield (top right center). Also, soil erosion is occurring along rocked drainages (foreground). Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2143 Sinkholes are common in Lyon County. Generally, sinkholes begin as small depressions like the one pictured above, which is about 3 feet in diameter. While planting or harvesting at the Western Kentucky Correctional Complex, tractors often run over these depressions, which then collapse, causing the tractor to become stuck. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2142 Barnett Spring is a karst spring, which flows year around. Karst springs are common throughout Lyon County. In the eastern and northern two-thirds of Lyon County, more than three-quarters of the drilled wells in the uplands are adequate for a domestic supply. Yields as high as 50 gallons per minute have been reported from wells penetrating large solution channels. In the low-lying areas of Eddy Creek most wells are inadequate for domestic use unless the well intercepts a major solution opening in the limestone; in that case, the yield could be very large. Wells in the uplands of the Land Between the Lakes in the southwestern quarter of the county generally do not yield enough water for domestic use. In the lowlands adjacent to Kentucky and Barkley Lakes, however, three-fourths of the wells located within the bedrock yield enough for a domestic supply and can sometimes produce more than 5 gallons per minute. Springs with flows ranging from a few gallons per minute to 1,280 gallons per minute are found in the county. Minimum flow generally occurs in early fall, maximum flows in late winter. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2141 An example of the gently rolling topography in Lyon County, which is excellent for row crop agriculture. Other parts of Lyon County may have steep slopes with narrow valleys. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2140 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers bank stabilization project along the Cumberland River in Lyon and Livingston Counties. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2139 Kuttawa Marina is one of three marinas on Barkley Lake in Lyon County. The other two marinas are the Eddy Creek Marina and the Buzzard Rock Marina. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2138 Logan County is ranked as the number one producer of dark air-cured tobacco (dark green tobacco above) in Kentucky. Approximately 1,000 acres were harvested in 2003 in the county. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2137 Agriculture is a major part of the Logan County economy. In 2002, 112,200 acres (32 percent) of the 355,827 acres available were planted in corn and soybeans. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2136 With more than 900 milk cows, the Robey Dairy in Logan County is the largest dairy in Kentucky. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2135 Approaching 40,000 head of cattle and calves, Logan County ranks as one of the leaders in western Kentucky beef production. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2134 Logan County lies within two ecoregions. The northern part of the county is located in the Crawford–Mammoth Cave Uplands ecoregion and the southern part of the county is located in the Western Pennyroyal Karst Plain ecoregion. Both regions are dominated by karst features such as sinkholes and sinking streams. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2133 The Logan Aluminum Plant employs approximately 1,000 people, and is the largest manufacturing plant in Logan County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2132 Limestone is an abundant rock in Logan County. The Hanson Aggregate Quarry produces approximately 400,000 tons of crushed stone per year. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2131 Because of thin soil cover in certain areas of the county, rock excavation is required during road and other types of construction. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2130 Sinkholes are natural drainage points for groundwater and should never be used as trash dumps. This sinkhole on the Milam Farm in Logan County has been protected. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2129 Sinkholes are natural drainage points for groundwater and should never be used as trash dumps. One way to protect sinkholes is by using geosynthetic materials and rip-rap, which help to control further soil erosion. Pictured above is a sinkhole that has been protected on the T.L. Maddux Farm in Livingston County. This sinkhole protection was funded by the Kentucky Soil Erosion and Water Quality Cost Share Program through the Livingston County Conservation District. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2128 Sinkholes are common karst features throughout Livingston County. Sinkholes commonly form in row crop fields as small openings, 1 to 2 feet in diameter, as seen above. Without proper management, these sink- holes can form depressions that are tens of feet in diameter. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2127 The 40-year-old Barkley Dam in Livingston County, constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, provides flood protection along the Cumberland River and produces hydroelectric power. Barkley Dam has a generating capacity of 148 megawatts. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2126 As seen in this photo, low-lying areas along the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers in Livingston County are prone to flooding. During the 1997 flood, Ohio River floodwater was 3.5 feet deep in this house. Photo courtesy of Sheena Thomas-Brown, Livingston County 4-H/Youth Development Agent.  
2125 Limestone springs, such as Gum Spring pictured above, are located throughout Livingston County. Most of these springs flow year around and are used as drinking-water sources. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2123 Limestone is an abundant rock in Livingston County. Currently, there are two active limestone quarries in Livingston County: Vulcan Materials Reed Quarry seen here and Martin Marietta Aggregates' Three Rivers Quarry. Combined, these companies employ approximately 350 people and produce approximately 13 million tons of crushed stone per year. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2122 Lake Pee Wee is a 420-acre-lake constructed in the early 1950’s to supply drinking water to the city of Madisonville. Currently, Lake Pee Wee provides drinking water to approximately 65 percent of Hopkins County. The lake holds 1.355 billon gallons of water and when necessary is recharged by pumping 9 million gallons of water per day from the Green River. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2121 Traditional agriculture is a major part of the Hopkins County economy. Of the 353,433 acres in Hopkins County, 61,062 were used to grow corn, soybeans, and tobacco in 2002. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2120 Poultry-litter storage buildings are used to assist farmers in meeting nutrient-management and water-quality guidelines set by the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Authority. Currently, approximately 150 chicken houses are in Hopkins County, and each poultry farm has at least one litter storage building. The above building is located on the Doug Brown Farm. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2119 The presence of clayey to silty soils allows water to stand in row-crop fields in Hopkins County. Fields are tiled in order to improve surface drainage in low-lying areas. Photo by George Kelley, Hopkins County Agriculture and Natural Resources agent. 
2118 Peppers (nontraditional crop) are growing next to burley tobacco (a traditional crop) on the Brumfield Farm. Commercial vegetable growing on black plastic with irrigation is just one of the nontraditional agricultural practices that have increased over the last 5 years in Hopkins County. Traditional agriculture such as corn, soybeans, and tobacco is still a major part of the Hopkins County economy, however. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2117 Coal mining is a vital part of the Hopkins County economy. From 1866 to 2000, Hopkins County produced 782 million tons of coal: 475 from underground mines and 307 from surface mines. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2116 The Trover Foundation and Regional Medical Center is located in Madisonville and is the largest employer in Hopkins County. The Regional Medical Center serves 12 surrounding counties in western Kentucky. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2115 The Dotiki IV surface mine in Hopkins County, which is one of six surface mines owned by Dotiki in western Kentucky and southern Illinois. The facility was constructed in 2003, and mines the W. Kentucky No. 9 coal. In 2003, Dotiki Mines was the largest producer of coal in Kentucky and the largest non-longwall coal producer in the nation. Primary customers for coal produced at Dotiki are Seminole Electric, Tennessee Valley Authority, Louisville Gas & Electric, Western Kentucky Energy, Tampa Electric, and Henderson Municipal. Photo courtesy of Doug Blair. 
2114 A typical cypress swamp located in the Obion Creek drainage. Most of Obion Creek drains the Loess Plains Ecoregion. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2113 Approximately 140 chicken houses are in Hickman County. Each house holds about 27,000 birds. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crop fields. Agriculture is a major part of the Hickman County economy. There are 156,871 acres in Hickman County, and 84,800 of them were planted in either corn or soybeans in 2002. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2112 A typical way to control gully erosion, which is very common in Hickman County, is to construct a grassed waterway with a rock chute outlet. Funding for this structure is provided by the CRP CP-21 program through the USDA Conservation Reserve Program. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2111 Landslides and slumps are associated with tall bluffs during strong earthquakes. The bluff pictured above is located just south of Columbus-Belmont State Park on Ky. 58 in Hickman County. The bluff is capped by approximately 30 feet of loess (windblown) material. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2110 City of Henderson on the Ohio River seen from the air in 2004. Aerial photo (2004) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program. 
2109 The Western Kentucky Office of the Kentucky Geological Survey is located at 1401 Corporate Court, Henderson, KY 42420, tel. 270.8278.3414. Office hours are 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday. 
2108 The Ohio River and the CSX railroad system are two major modes of transportation used by industry in Henderson County. This photo was taken just south of the boat ramp in downtown Henderson. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2107 The late afternoon sun creates a shadow CSX bridge across the river at Henderson. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program. 
2106 Flat lowlands and rolling uplands are the two dominant physiographic features in Henderson County. This photo illustrates the physiographic changes that are common in Henderson County. Flat lowlands, on the right side of the photo, are associated with Ohio River flood deposits. The lowlands are used extensively for cropland. Because of seasonal flooding, land use on these lowlands may be restricted. Rolling uplands, on the left side of the photo, are associated with eroded loess deposits and are used for cropland, pastureland, and residential and commercial development. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2105 This pump jack is located in the Ohio River floodplain and is constructed on stilts to avoid flooding, which is common during the spring months. Approximately 3,000 producing oil and gas wells have been completed in Henderson County. The county has produced more that 111 million barrels of oil and 1.2 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2104 "Soil piping" is a term used to describe the removal of soil by subsurface water. When the soil is removed, small to large holes form, which may occur along linear paths, as seen in Henderson County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2103 Henderson County, an area of 440 square miles, was formed in the Western Coalfield Region in 1799. The lowest elevation in the county is at the normal pool of the Ohio River, 331 feet. The highest elevation, 588 feet, is in Wolf Hills, northeast of Henderson. The 2005 population of 45,470 was 5.6 percent greater than in 1990. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2102 This cypress swamp, located just north of the John James Audubon State Park, is an example of how varied the ecology is in Henderson County. The swamp lies within the Wabash-Ohio Bottomlands, which covers northern Henderson County along the Ohio River (Woods and others, 2002). Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2101 Pirtle Spring supplies much of the raw water for Hardin County Water District No. 1. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2100 A natural cave is exposed in the E-town Quarry north of White Mills, which mines limestone from the Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis Formations. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2099 Karst (sinkholes, underground streams, springs, and caves) is prevalent in Hardin County. This is an example of a cover-collapse sinkhole, where an opening to a sinkhole has developed when the soil plug to the sinkhole collapsed. It has been filled with rocks to allow drainage. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2098 Freeman Lake in Greenbelt Park (Elizabethtown) in Hardin County was formerly used as a water reservoir for the city. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2097 Hardin County is the home of Fort Knox, a major military training center and the home of the U.S. Treasury's Fort Knox Bullion Depository. The depository is constructed of granite, concrete, and steel and is not open to the public. It has safeguarded the Magna Carta, the British Crown Jewels, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution since its construction in 1936. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2096 Naturally occurring petroleum can be found in some sandstone outcrops in Hardin County. These are called "tar sands" and occur in the Hardinsburg Sandstone. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2095 Much of Hardin County obtains water from several springs on the Nolin River and the headwaters of Rough River. This photograph shows the water intake equipment for Hardin County Water District No. 2 at White Mills Spring in southwestern Hardin County. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2094 Rockslides in shale units are relatively common in roadcuts along the Blue Grass Parkway in Hardin County, and result from freezing and thawing of ice in fractures in the rock. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2093 Logging has become a more common activity in Hardin County as woodlands mature. Logging can have a serious impact on water quality if best management practices are not followed. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2092 Approaching Hardin County from the east on the Blue Grass Parkway, the transition from the Mississippian Plateau physiographic region into the Knobs Region is very noticeable. Photo by Jack Stickney, Kentucky Rural Water Association. 
2091 Gallatin County has 18 miles of Ohio River frontage. The river provides recreational opportunities for boating, skiing, and fishing. Photo by Warren Anderson, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2090 Sterling Ventures LLC produces aggregate from the Tyrone and Camp Nelson Limestones in this quarry in Gallatin County. Photo by Garland Dever, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2089 A spring flows beneath a home built on shale in Gallatin County. Photo by Warren Anderson, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2088 Home built on shale showing initial signs of slope failure--cracks in concrete, leaking basement, and slumping septic system installed on downslope front yard. Photo by Warren Anderson, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2087 Pavement failure along U.S. 42-127 east of Warsaw in Gallatin County. The road is built on shale, and requires continued maintenance. The Ohio River is below to the left. Photo by Warren Anderson, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2086 The 775 employees of Century Aluminum, just downriver from Hawesville off Ky. 271, can produce up to 244,000 metric tons of aluminum a year. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program. 
2085 The stream erosion pictured here in Hancock County is a result of the 1997 flood that swept the area. Many corridors sustained damage and were costly to restore. Funding was provided by the Emergency Watershed Protection Fund through the Federal Emergency Management Agency to assist in the restoration process. Photo courtesy of Rick Burbridge, Hancock County District Conservationist. 
2084 Repairing the floodwall in Hawesville. The wall was breached by floodwaters of the Ohio River in 1997. Flat, low-lying areas associated with alluvium are subject to flooding. Photo courtesy of Diane Perkins, Hancock County Extension Agent for Agriculture and Natural Resources. 
2083 The Bob Cummings Lincoln Trail Bridge is the only bridge crossing the Ohio River in Hancock County, making it a vital part of the county's economy. Photo courtesy of Rick Burbridge, Hancock County District Conservationist. 
2082 The 1600-foot Cannelton Locks and Dam spans the Ohio River. Completed in the 1960's, the structure creates a 114-mile-long lake that stretches from Hancock County to Louisville. The lake is used for various recreational activities such as boating and picnicking. Photo courtesy of Rick Burbridge, Hancock County District Conservationist. 
2081 Agriculture is a major land use in Hancock County: 19,197 acres (16 percent) of the 120,940 acres available were planted in corn, soybeans, and tobacco in 2002-2003. Photo courtesy of Diane Perkins, Hancock County Extension Agent for Agriculture and Natural Resources. 
2080 The topography of Hancock County ranges from flat, broad lowlands to very steep-sloped uplands. The elevation ranges from about 380 feet above mean sea level at the river to about 830 feet in the uplands. Photo courtesy of Rick Burbridge, Hancock County District Conservationist. 
2079 The well-drained soils in Graves County are conducive to the use of septic tanks with lateral lines. The unconsolidated sediment makes for easy excavation. In areas where the soils are not well-drained, unconventional methods to handle waste may be needed. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2078 Approximately 230 chicken houses are in Graves County. Each house holds about 27,000 birds. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crop fields. Agriculture is a major part of the Graves County economy. There are 356,224 acres of land in Graves County, and 124,200 of those acres were planted with either corn or soybeans in 2002. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2077 Currently, 61 catfish ponds are in Graves County. After harvesting, the fish are trucked to the processing plant, located at the Purchase Area Aquaculture Cooperative. The processing plant is currently running at 30 percent capacity. To get the plant to 80 percent capacity 1,000 more acres of ponds are needed. Photo courtesy of Roberta Bonk, Purchase Area Aquaculture Cooperative. 
2076 The Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Company has been mining ball clay in Graves County since 1887 and is currently one of three ball clay mining companies in the county. Ball clay has a high percentage of aluminum, which makes it suitable for the production of toilets, sinks, floor tile, bathtubs, and fine dinnerware. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2075 Abundant groundwater is available for domestic, irrigation, and industrial uses in Fulton County, from depths of a few feet down to 1,500 feet. Yields in some of the deeper wells (250 to 1,500 feet) are greater than 1,000 gallons per minute, sufficient for a community or industrial supply. Water from alluvium is generally hard, to very hard, with moderate to high levels of dissolved solids. Water from the sand or gravel, non-alluvium aquifers are considered soft and slightly acidic, with low dissolved solids. Water quality generally is good, except in areas where downward percolation of surface water and fluids from domestic sewage-disposal systems and other sources of domestic or industrial pollution have contaminated the aquifer. Groundwater sometimes contains naturally occuring iron and manganese in objectionable amounts from the deeper zones. In some formations with slightly acidic groundwater, a chemical reaction between the acidic groundwater, steel well casing, and pump equipment will produce a high iron content in the water, which is not naturally occurring. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2073 Most of Fulton County consists of flat bottomlands and gently rolling uplands, with the exception of the Brownsville area, which mostly consists of steep slopes and narrow ridgetops. The Brownsville area is just southwest of Hickman. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2072 Approximately 40 chicken houses are in Fulton County. Each house holds about 27,000 birds. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crop fields. Agriculture is a major part of the Fulton County economy. There are 135,264 acres in Fulton County, and 82,300 of them were planted with either corn or soybeans in 2002. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2070 This reconstructed and protected bluff, located just north of Hickman in Fulton County, has been unstable since the city was founded in 1819. This bluff and possibly others in the area are highly susceptible to landslides during a strong earthquake. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2069 Much of Fulton County consists of flat bottomlands, which are subject to frequent flooding. Photo courtesy of Jerry McIntosh, U.S. Department of Agriculture--Natural Resource Conservation Service. 
2068 Swans and ducks enjoy a farm pond at the Kentucky Horse Park. Photo by Jim Rebmann, Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government. 
2067 Vulcan Materials Co. produces aggregate for the construction industry from the Camp Nelson Limestone at this mine on the corner of Manchester and S. Forbes in Lexington. Photo by Jim Rebmann, Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government, Division of Planning. 
2066 In 1958, Lexington became the first U.S. city to establish an urban service boundary. Outside the boundary, intensive development is not allowed. The urban service boundary has expanded since its inception; 47,000 acres of farmland were lost between 1964 and 2002, most during 1992-2002. In 2007, a five-year moratorium on expansion of the urban services boundary was declared. Photo by Jim Rebmann, Lexington–Fayette Urban County Government, Division of Planning.  
2065 A Home Depot and Super Wal-Mart would soon rest in the same spot where 18 famous race horses, dating back to 1898 Kentucky Derby winner Plaudit, now rest in peace on Hamburg Place Farm. The famed horse farm was to make way for 436,900 square feet of retail space and nearly 2,500 parking spots. Thus reported the Lexington Herald-Leader in 2004, one of many reports on the loss of the unique Bluegrass landscape of grassy horse farms, tobacco barns, and white fences to shopping malls and subdivisions chronicled by the newspaper since the 1960s. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2064 Farmland east of Lexington protected through the Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) program. The landowner sells the development rights in perpetuity for the difference between the agricultural use value and the future development value. The PDR program encourages rural preservation and planned growth by reserving large contiguous rural areas. The goal of the PDR program is to purchase 50,000 acres by the year 2020. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2063 An army of new residential homes advances on the horizon beyond horse farms off Ky. 1681 in Fayette County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2062 Preservation of the character of the land was a high priority in the design of the new 4-lane Paris Pike. This required a spacious green median and, in some cases, relocation and reconstruction of historic stone fences. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2061 Lexington is known as The Horse Capital of the World. The Kentucky Horse Park will host the 2010 Alltech Fédération Equestre Internationale World Equestrian Games, bringing $150 million to the community. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2060 Keeneland in Fayette County is world-renowned for its thoroughbred racing and sales. Photo by Jim Rebmann, Lexington–Fayette Urban County Government, Division of Planning. 
2059 Annual burley tobacco production, once the backbone of Bluegrass farming, has dropped from 480 million pounds to less than 140 million pounds in recent years. Photo by Jim Rebmann, Lexington–Fayette Urban County Government, Division of Planning. 
2058 There are 38 miles of historic stone fences in the public right-of-way along local roads in Fayette County. The fences were made from local limestone by Irish immigrants. A local ordinance protects these fences from destruction. Photo by Jim Rebmann, Lexington–Fayette Urban County Government, Division of Planning. 
2057 Raven Run Creek. Raven Run is a unique, 470 acre nature sanctuary dedicated to preserving the natural beauty of the Kentucky River Palisades and early Kentucky history. Over 10 miles of hiking trails provide access to streams, meadows and woodlands characteristic of the area. Numerous 19th century remnants of early settlers, as well as over 600 species of plants, allow visitors to become acquainted with and appre- ciate the natural world. Raven Run also accommodates over 200 species of birds throughout the year. Photo by Jim Rebmann, Lexington–Fayette Urban County Government, Division of Planning.  View Geologic Map
2056 Attempt to fill in a cover-collapse sinkhole in Fayette County. Photo courtesy of Leslie Russo. 
2055 Sinkhole cover collapse in Fayette County. After perhaps years of slow settlement, soils over bedrock solution channels collapse rapidly and wash out, leaving sinkholes such as this. This phenomenon occurs throughout the Inner Bluegrass karst landscape. Photo courtesy of Jim Currens, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2054 Houchins Ferry is one of two ferries in Mammoth Cave National Park. Both ferries transport vehicles across the Green River, which is a major drinking- water source for Edmonson County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2053 Sinkholes are common features in karst areas of Edmonson County; they develop in limestone bedrock. A sinkhole is any depression in the surface of the ground from which rainfall is drained underground. Karst sinkholes form when a fracture or conduit in the limestone bedrock becomes enlarged. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2052 Mammoth Cave National Park, established in 1941, receives approximately 1.7 million visitors per year. The park is home to Mammoth Cave, which is the longest surveyed cave system in the world, with over 350 miles of passages. Approximately 45,713 acres of the park's 52,830 acres are located in Edmonson County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2051 This levee was constructed to control flooding along the Big Reedy Creek drainage in Edmonson County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2050 The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed the Nolin River Dam in 1959 to prevent flood damage along the Nolin and Green River drainages. The 166-ft-high dam created a 5,795-acre lake, which extends into Hart and Grayson Counties. Nolin Lake State Park, located just north of the dam, covers an area of 333 acres in Edmonson County. Not only is Nolin Lake a recreational area, but it's also a drinking-water source for Edmonson County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2049 Oil well "pump jacks" (foreground) and tanks (background) are a familiar site to residents of Edmonson County. Approximately 400 oil and gas wells have been completed in the county. The county has produced 660,000 barrels of oil and 547 million cubic feet of natural gas. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2048 Oil well pump jacks are located throughout Daviess County. Approximately 1,800 producing oil and gas wells have been completed in the county. From 1980 to 2007, they produced over 56 million barrels of oil and nearly 50 million cubic feet of natural gas. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2047 The Owensboro Riverport, on 425 acres adjacent to the Ohio River, began operations in June 1976. Currently, the Riverport handles nearly 1.5 million tons of product and cargo per year. Photo courtesy of the Owensboro Riverport. 
2046 The population of Daviess County grew 5 percent between 1990 and 2000. Residential and commercial construction is a growing land use throughout the county. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2045 An estimated 600 to 700 acres of fresh market produce is grown annually in Daviess County. The West Kentucky Grower Co-Op works with local farmers to distribute the produce. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2044 Agriculture is a major part of the Daviess County economy. According to the Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service, 142,625 (54 percent) of the 296,000 acres available were planted in corn, soybeans, and tobacco in 2002-03. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2043 Because of the large percentage of flat to gently sloping areas associated with the Ohio and Green Rivers in Daviess County, development, such as subdivisions, can cause flooding if proper drainage designs are not implemented as part of the planning and development process. Watersheds can also be impaired from improper sewage treatment and urban and industrial runoff. Photograph by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2042 Farmers use groundwater to irrigate their crops planted in bottomlands along the Ohio and Green Rivers in Daviess County. The alluvium along the Ohio River is the best source of groundwater in the county. In northern Daviess County, nearly all drilled wells with depths less than 150 feet in the alluvium of the Ohio River Valley are adequate for domestic use; most wells yield more than 50 gallons per minute, and some wells yield as much as 750 gallons per minute. In most of central and southern Daviess County, most wells with depths less than 300 feet that penetrate sandstone are adequate for a domestic supply. In several small, localized areas in southern Daviess County, wells yield little or no water. Generally, groundwater is hard to very hard, and iron and salt may be present in objectionable amounts. In deep wells, groundwater is often too mineralized to use. Photograph by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2041 During the early to mid-1900’s, Crittenden County was the center of the fluorspar industry. The Ben E. Clement Mineral Museum in Marion houses the largest and finest collection of fluorite specimens in the world. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2040 The Conceptual Stone Quarry in Crittenden County mines approximately 4,000 tons of sandstone per year. The sandstone is used as dimensional stone for home construction, landscaping, etc. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2039 The topography of Crittenden County ranges from flat bottomlands along the Ohio River to rolling uplands with steep slopes. Generally, steep slope areas are not suitable for row crops and are used for pasture. In 2003, there were 19,700 head of cattle in the county. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2038 Most residents of Crittenden County have access to water lines. The Cumberland River is the primary drinking-water source. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2037 Lake George is the source of drinking water for the city of Marion's 3,500 residents in Crittenden County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2036 In order to maintain optimum production during drought conditions, Ohio River water is used for pivot irrigation of row crops in the valley in Crittenden County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2035 The Crittenden County Coal Company Tex No. 1 Mine is the only active coal mine in Crittenden County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2034 The population of Christian County grew 5 percent between 1990 and 2000. Conversion of land to residential use is growing throughout the county. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2033 Because of thin soil cover in certain areas of the county, rock excavation is required during road and other types of construction. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2032 Lake Blythe is one of several lakes used to supplement the North Fork of the Little River, which is the main drinking-water supply for Christian County. As seen above, lake level has dropped considerably because of drought conditions. Picture was taken on August 10, 2005. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey.  
2031 Limestone is an abundant rock in Christian County. One of several active quarries in the county, the Rogers Group Hopkinsville Aggregate Quarry, shown above, produces approximately 1.5 million tons of crushed stone per year. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2030 Agriculture is a major part of the Christian County economy. According to the 2002-2003 Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service, 136,577 acres (30 percent) of the 462,201 land acres available were planted in corn, soybeans, and tobacco. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2029 The new Burkley boat ramp will make the Mississippi River more accessible to residents of Carlisle County. Ramp construction is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Carlisle County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2028 MeadWestvaco has a fine-grade paper mill in Ballard County, which uses the bottomlands in Carlisle County to grow cottonwoods and sycamores for paper production. MeadWestvaco owns approximately 3,500 acres in Carlisle County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2027 About 40 chicken houses are in Carlisle County. Each house holds about 27,000 birds. Chicken litter associated with these operations is used as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers on row crop fields. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2026 Agriculture is a major part of the Carlisle County economy. There are 122,112 acres in Carlisle County, and 49,300 of them were planted with either corn or soybeans in 2002. Photo courtesy of Jerry McIntosh, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 
2025 An abandoned hog lagoon is being pumped to utilize the nutrient-rich waste water on nearby row crop fields. To control runoff of the wastewater, the lagoon can only be pumped during certain times of the year. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2024 When building a road in Calloway County, rock excavation is generally not needed. Because of the large number of small streams and wetlands associated with those drainages, however, cut and fill techniques are required. Cut and fill techniques are used to remove soil unsuitable for road construction, such as saturated clays. The new Ky. 80 running through Calloway County is an example of how multiple bridges are used, as well as cut and fill methods. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2023 The City of Murray and parts of Calloway County use groundwater as their drinking-water source. The above municipal water well, one of five, is approximately 200 feet deep and pumps about 1,000 gallons of water per minute. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2022 Groundwater is used in pivot irrigation of traditional crops such as corn in Calloway County. Pivot irrigation is used to sustain crop growth during periods of drought. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2021 Groundwater is used for drip irrigation of nontraditional agricultural crops such as ornamental trees, cabbage, watermelons, and cantaloupes in Calloway County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2020 Surficial materials in Calloway County are unconsolidated and generally saturated with water, which can make these materials prone to collapse during excavation. Shallow excavation through these surficial materials is needed in order to construct water and sewage pipelines. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2019 Slow flowing streams such as the East Fork of the Clarks River are prevalent in the Loess Plains Ecoregion of Calloway County. Because of the large percentage of flat to gently sloping areas, developments such as subdivisions can cause flooding if proper drainage designs are not implemented. These streams are susceptible to impairment from improper sewage treatment and agricultural, urban, and industrial runoff contamination. Allowing natural vegetation to thrive along the stream bank is an excellent way to maintain good surface-water quality. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2018 Topography in Caldwell County ranges from flat river valleys to narrow ridges. The elevation ranges from 388 to 705 feet. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2017 The Black Oak Vineyard is one example of nontraditional agriculture in Caldwell County. Approximately 15 acres of vines are planted at this site. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2016 Residential areas are a significant land use in Caldwell County. Home construction requires appropriate planning. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2015 The 163-acre Princeton-Caldwell County Industrial Park is just one of many sites in the county that promote industrial growth. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2014 The settlement of Princeton was in large part due to the presence of Big Spring, which flows year round. In 1838, Big Spring was also a camping site used by the Cherokee Indian nation during the Trail of Tears. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2013 Limestone is an abundant rock in Caldwell County. The Rogers Group Princeton Quarry produces approximately 800,000 tons of crushed stone per year. Established in 1891, the quarry has been in operation for more than a century. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey.  
2012 An example of how water-retaining fill material destabilized part of the William H. Natcher Parkway in Butler County. Upon saturation, the original fill material, containing Pennsylvanian shales, became unstable and caused a landslide that created a large breach in the parkway. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2011 The Yukon Valley Minerals limestone quarry is the only active quarry in Butler County. Thirty feet of overburden is being removed to mine the Glen Dean Limestone, about 25 feet thick at this location. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2010 Ten percent of Butler County consists of reclaimed surface coal mine land. There are currently no active surface or deep coal mines in Butler County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2009 An earthen levy was constructed around this lowlying rowcrop field to hold back floodwater from the Green River in Butler County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2008 Lock No. 3 on the Green River during high flow. The Green River pool level is maintained by the dam at Lock No. 3. This pool is the primary source of drinking water for Butler County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2007 Sinkholes are common karst features in parts of Breckinridge County. Sinkholes commonly form under or adjacent to houses as small openings, 3 to 4 feet in diameter, as seen above. Without proper management, these sinkholes can form depressions that are tens of feet in diameter. Photograph by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2006 Agriculture is an important part of the Breckinridge County economy. According to the 2004-2005 Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service 31,400 acres (8 percent) of the 374,720 land acres available were planted in corn, soybeans and tobacco. Photograph by Dan Kotter, Kentucky Geological Survey.  
2005 Because of thin soil cover in certain areas of the county, rock excavation is required during road and other types of construction. An example is this roadcut into the Hardinsburg Sandstone on U.S. 60 just west of Hardinsburg in Breckinridge County. Photograph by Dan Kotter, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
2004 Breckinridge County, 572 square miles in the Western Pennyroyal Region, was formed in 1800 and named after John Breckinridge (1760–1806), Kentucky Attorney General, U.S. Senator, and U.S. Attorney General. The present Breckinridge County courthouse, said to be completely fireproof, is the fourth; three earlier courthouses were destroyed by fire. The county population in 2005 was 19,300, 3.5 percent greater than in 2000. Photo by Dan Kotter, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2003 The topography of Breckingridge County ranges from flat broad valleys to steep sloped uplands. The eastern edge of the county is on the karst limestone plain that extends from the Ohio River generally south to the Tennessee line. Sinkholes, streamless valleys, and underground drainage systems characterize the area. A plateau west of the sinkhole plain is marked by a conspicuous escarpment that rises 200 to 250 feet above the plain. The plateau, which is generally higher in the east than in the west, is moderately to deeply dissected. Large flat-topped ridges are present in several parts of the county. These flat areas, developed on resistant rock formations, give these regions a tableland appearance. Locally, isolated hills or ridges rise 80 to 100 feet above the plateau surface. The greatest local relief is in the vicinity of the Ohio River. In the northeastern corner of the county, the difference in elevation from one hilltop to the Ohio River floodplain is 500 feet over a distance of about 3/4 mile. Locally, precipitous cliffs are present along some of the streams. Photo by Dan Kotter, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2002 Rough River Dam Resort Park, one of Kentucky’s many State Parks, accommodates a 5,000 acre lake located in both Breckinridge and Grayson Counties. The dam, completed in 1961, provides reduction of flood stages downstream and public recreation on the impounded Rough River Lake. Photograph by Dan Kotter, Kentucky Geological Survey.  
2001 Steep slopes in the Knobs Region and in the eastern part of Nelson County are susceptible to sliding and slumping because they are composed of thick shales in the Borden Formation and New Albany Shale. Builders should avoid cutting into the toe (base) of hills or past slides in these areas, cutting vegetation from stable slopes, or directing water toward the heads of slopes. Bent trees on slopes, hummocky (bumpy) topography, and water seeps at the base of slopes are indicators of past or potential movement. Photo by John Kiefer, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
2000 Lake Carnico, 120 acres, provides boating, fishing, swimming, and bird watching recreation in Nicholas County. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.   View Geologic Map
1999 The South Fork of the Kentucky River winds past Booneville in Owsley County through the alluvial valley. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
1998 Slope stabilization following a landslide near Fishtrap Lake Dam in Pike County.   View Geologic Map
1997 Fishtrap Lake, with a surface area of 1,130 acres, provides for fishing and boating. The surrounding recreational area affords biking, hiking, and camping. Fishtrap Lake Dam, completed in1968, protects the valley of the Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy River from flooding. It is situated about 6 miles east of Pikeville near the small community of Millard, and is the highest dam in eastern Kentucky. Built of native rock on a clay waterproof core, the dam is 195 feet high and 1,000 feet long. The job required moving 5 million cubic yards of rock and earth. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers manages the dam and lake, in conjunction with the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Photo courtesy of the Huntington District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 
1996 The Pikeville Cut-Through, which began in 1973, was a 14-year engineering achievement second only to the Panama Canal. The channel is 1,300 feet wide, 3,700 feet long, and 523 feet deep. It reroutes the flow of the Levisa Fork away from the oxbow that encircles Pikeville and controls flooding. The 390 acres of flat land that were created have seen extensive development. 2004 photo shows the completed cutoff. Photo from U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
1995 The Pikeville Cut-Through, which began in 1973, was a 14-year engineering achievement second only to the Panama Canal. The channel is 1,300 feet wide, 3,700 feet long, and 523 feet deep. It reroutes the flow of the Levisa Fork away from the oxbow that encircles Pikeville and controls flooding. The 390 acres of flat land that were created have seen extensive development. This 1974 photo shows conditions before the cut-through. Photo from U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
1994 Slopes below benches cut in shales of the Borden Formation in Powell County often require reinforcement to maintain stability. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1993 Pavement failures on Ky. 613, cut into shale in the Borden Formation above the Red River in Powell County, are common. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1992 Casey County, 446 square miles in the Pennyroyal and Outer Bluegrass Regions, was formed in 1807. It is an area of broad valleys, steep hillsides, and numerous long, flat-topped ridges. The highest elevation, 1,789 feet, is near the Pulaski County line on Green River Knob. The lowest elevation, 710 feet, is where the Green River leaves the county. The 2005 population of 16,277 was 5.2 percent greater than that of 2000. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1991 The Boyle Dolomite is seen in this roadcut on U.S. 127 in Casey County. Water seeps from the surface through cracks, dissolving the rock and creating underground flow paths for pollutants from the surface. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1990 Limestone, in addition to coal, contributes to the local economy in Morgan County. Cave Run Stone produces construction aggregate from the Newman Limestone at their quarry near Cave Run Lake off of Ky. 519. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Aerial Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
1989 Limestone, in addition to coal, contributes to the Morgan County economy. Cave Run Stone produces construction aggregate from the Newman Limestone at their quarry near Cave Run Lake off of Ky. 519. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1988 Areas underlain by St. Louis Limestone in Monroe County have soils for a strong agriculture and provide attractive sites for homes. Thoughtful planning can minimize conflicting interests. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1987 Metcalfe County, 291 square miles in the Mississippian Plateaus (Pennyroyal) Region, was formed in 1860. The highest point in the county, 1,182 feet, is on a ridge on Ky. 163 about 1/3 mile north of Ky. 90. The lowest elevation, 560 feet, is where the Little Barren River leaves the county. The 2006 population, 10,219, was 1.8 percent greater than that of 2000. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1986 The rolling terrain of the Pikeville Formation in Menifee County provides pasture for small beef operations. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1985 Aerial view (2004) of the Menifee Stone quarry. Photo by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.   View Geologic Map
1984 The MeadWestvaco fine papers mill, located just south of Wickliffe, was constructed in 1970. MeadWestvaco is a major employer in Ballard County, and uses the surrounding river bottoms for tree farming. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1983 The Graves and Sons Dairy is one of three active dairies in Ballard County in 2003. During the 1960's and '70's there were approximately 100 active dairies in the county, but falling milk prices forced them to close. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1982 One of the many cypress swamps in the Ballard Wildlife Management Area, located in the westernmost part of the Wabash-Ohio Bottomlands Ecoregion. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1981 The confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. This picture was taken at Fort Defiance State Park, Ill., looking southeast toward the city of Wickliffe in Ballard County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1980 A typical way to control gully erosion, which is very common in Ballard County, is to construct a grassed waterway with a rock chute outlet. Funding for this structure is provided by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program through the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1979 Pictured above are the Ohio River, the Ky. 51 bridge in Ballard County (foreground), and the Illinois Central Railroad bridge (background). All three are major methods of transportation, and are vital to Ballard County. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1978 In an attempt to control flooding within the Mayfield Creek watershed, the Mayfield Creek Dredged Ditch was constructed in the early 1950's. The project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Carlisle, Ballard, Graves, and McCracken Fiscal Courts. Photo by Glynn Beck, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1977 Ponded water and slaking shales in the Hyden Formation along Ky. 1439 in Martin County indicate potential problems for construction. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1976 Rowan County, 281 square miles in the Eastern Coalfield, was formed in 1856. Most of the county is hilly to mountainous. The highest elevation, 1,435 feet, is Limestone Knob, about 3 miles south- west of Morehead. The lowest elevation, 625 feet, is where the Licking River leaves the county. The 2006 population was 22,221. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. 
1974 High water mark from the March 1, 1997 flood seen in the interior of the Grange City Covered Bridge, Fleming County. The bridge crosses Fox Creek, a tributary of the nearby Licking River. Water mark is approximately 8 feet above floor of the bridge. See also image no. 1973 by Thomas Sparks, 2004.  View Geologic Map
1973 High water mark from the March 1, 1997 flood seen in the interior of the Grange City Covered Bridge, Fleming County. The bridge crosses Fox Creek, a tributary of the nearby Licking River. Water mark is approximately 8 feet above floor of the bridge. See also image no. 1974 by Mark Thompson, 2005.  View Geologic Map
1967  
1960 The Grange City covered bridge over Fox Creek is one of several such bridges in the Fleming County, survivors from a time of slower pace. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1959 Panoramic view of Frankfort from the Frankfort Cemetery, 2005  View Geologic Map
1958 Panoramic view of Frankfort from the Frankfort Cemetery.  View Geologic Map
1893 Alluvium provides soils and topography for agriculture in Spencer County. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1892 The topography of the Grant Lake Limestone in the Outer Bluegrass of Spencer County is gently rolling. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1891 Alluvium and ancient lake deposits provide soils and terrain for nurseries and row crops in Spencer County. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1890 The Calloway Creek Limestone provides soils for agriculture and attractive sites for homes in Spencer County. This farmland near Taylorsville was in the initial stages of being converted to a residential area in the summer of 2005. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1889 Limestone and dolomite of the Drakes Formation provides soils for agriculture and attractive sites for residential development. New residential construction off Ky. 44 near Crenshaw is indicative of the explosive growth of Spencer County, which has had a population increase of more than 70 percent between 1990 and 2000. A 26 percent increase from 2000 to 2004 was the highest in the state. Growth is especially noticeable in the eastern part of the county because of its proximity to the Louisville metropolitan area. The geology of Spencer County has moderate to severe limitations for onsite wastewater treatment systems. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1888 Floodplains, like this in Spencer County, are deposits of silt, sand, and gravel overlying bedrock. Although homes have been located in floodplains, agriculture and recreation are better land use choices for areas subject to flooding. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1887 Outlet Spillway, Taylorsville Lake, Spencer County. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1886 Dam under construction at Taylorsville Lake in Spencer County. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  View Geologic Map
1885 Taylorsville Lake Dam in Spencer County was constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1982 to control flooding on the Salt River, provide recreational uses, and improve downstream water quality. It is estimated that the dam has prevented nearly $36 million in flood damage since its construction. Nearly 1,300 feet long and 167 feet above the streambed, the dam created a lake that covers approximately 3,000 acres and is more than 18 miles long. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1884 Riprap (limestone gravel) is used to protect the Taylorsville Lake shoreline in Spencer County from erosion near boat ramps. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1883 Taylorsville Lake State Park in Spencer County is a popular weekend destination because of its proximity to the Louisville metropolitan area. The park covers 1,200 acres in eastern Spencer County and offers fishing, boating, camping (RV and tent), hiking, horseback riding, and biking. A marina and several boat ramps offer access to the lake at different locations. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1882 The Grant Lake Limestone, which underlies much of Spencer County, is exposed along roadcuts around Taylorsville Lake. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1881 Steeply rolling, knobby topography is typical of upland areas underlain by shale and limestone in the Kope and Clays Ferry Formation in Owen County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1880 Elk Creek Lake in Owen County is a private, residential community that provides boating and fishing recreation for its members. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1879 Concrete and steel repaired the roadway slump along Ky. 330 in Owen County. Shales in the Kope and Clays Ferry Formations tend to slump when wet, and providing adequate drainage for roads constructed on this rock may be difficult. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1878 Owen County, 352 square miles in the Outer Bluegrass Region, was formed in 1819. The elevation ranges from 425 to 1,000 feet. The 2000 population was 10,547, 30 people per square mile. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1877 Upland soils derived from Fairview Formation limestone in the Outer Bluegrass provide pasture for this miniature horse farm in Owen County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1876 Pond construction adjacent to Ky. 227 on the interbedded limestone and shale of the Calloway Creek Formation. There are many ponds on the Calloway Creek in Owen County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1875 The Kentucky River forms the western boundary of Owen County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1874 Sinkholes in the Grier Limestone Member of the Lexington Formation in Owen County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1873 The Grier Limestone Member of the Lexington Limestone is exposed along Cedar Creek in Owen County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1870 The low winter pool along Rough River Lake reveals the Big Clifty Sandstone along the shore in Grayson County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1869 The lumber industry is a common land-use feature of Wayne County. Photo by Jeff Adams, Don Molden Multiple Services Inc.  View Geologic Map
1868 Limestone from the Gilbert Member of the Ashlock Formation in the Springfield Quarry in Washington County is excavated for use as construction aggregate and agricultural lime. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1867 This pond on the St. Louis Limestone in Wayne County was a sinkhole on dry land in the early 1970's, but filled with water in a few days after the sinkhole became plugged with clayey soil. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1866 The Ohio River borders Trimble County on the west and north and provides inexpensive bulk transportation for power and manufacturing industries. Photo by Dan Carey Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1865 Weisenberger Mill in Scott County has been continuously operated by six generations of Weisenbergers since 1865 in Scott County. South Elkhorn Creek has provided power to the mill. The mill produces flours, corn meal, and a wide variety of specialty mixes. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1864 Nally and Gibson, Georgetown LLC, have been mining the Grier Limestone for aggregate at the Georgetown Quarry for over 50 years. Photo by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1863 The Nancy Oil Field in Pulaski County was developed in the mid- to late-1980's, primarily from the Knox Formation, at depths of around 1,900 feet. Many of these wells produced hundreds of barrels per day initially, but most (including Zimmerman No. 2 shown here) are now producing a few barrels per day on timers. Photo by Jeff Adams.   View Geologic Map
1862 Scott County Courthouse, Georgetown. E. Main and Broadway. In the National Register of Historic Places, 1972. Scott County, 285 square miles in the Inner Bluegrass Region, was established in 1792. The lowest point in the county, 690 feet, is where North Elkhorn Creek leaves the county. The highest point, 1,060 feet, is on a ridge on the Scott-Harrison County line at the head of the East Fork of Eagle Creek. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1861 Site of the new Cumberland River bridge on Ky. 90 in Pulaski County built on Mississippian Limestones. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1860 Excavation of large St. Louis Limestone blocks near the southwestern abutment construction site of the new Ky. 90 bridge over the Cumberland River near Bronston in Pulaski County. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1859 John Sherman Cooper Power Plant is located on the Cumberland River near Burnside in Pulaski County. This plant uses over 600,000 tons of coal per year, with sources in eastern Kentucky and Tennessee. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1858 This highwall in a limestone quarry in Pulaski County shows the variability of rock types within a single formation (Slade Formation). Dolomite, limestone, and shale layers are visible. Photo by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1857 Carmeuse Lime produces 1.4 million tons per year of high-calcium lime Camp Nelson Limestone for power plant scrubbers and the steel industry from its 600-foot-deep slope mine in Pendleton County on the Ohio River. Aerial photo (2004) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
1856 The Ohio River forms the northern boundary of Oldham County. Land use along the river includes recreation, farming, and residential areas. Development along the river is subject to floodplain construction requirements. Photo by Anthony Mount, University of Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
1855 Louisville Limestone parent material provides quality soil for pastures. Horse farms along U.S. 42 are rapidly being converted to residential areas. Row crops and grazing land are still found in western Oldham County. Photo by Anthony Mount, University of Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
1854 This roadcut along Ky. 524 near the Ohio River shows limestone and shale units in the lower part of the Drakes Formation in Oldham County. Photo by Anthony Mount, University of Kentucky.  View Geologic Map
1853 Waves of soil, loosened by cattle, rainfall, freezing, and thawing, slide slowly downslope on a hillside in Nicholas County on the Clays Ferry Formation stripped of trees. Vertical furrows are incipient gulleys. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1852 The J.C. Williams Wildlife Management Area is located in the floodplains of Beech Fork and Rolling Fork in the Knobs and Shale Region. Such areas are restricted from development. Wetlands in this and other areas are important because they moderate flooding, improve water quality, and provide habitat for wildlife. Including lakes and ponds, there are over 5,200 acres of wetlands in Nelson County. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1851 Residential development on the Laurel Dolomite in Nelson County. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1850 Population growth in Nelson County leads to residential construction, new roads, and water and sewer infrastructure. Depth and type of bedrock influence the cost of constructing water and sewer lines, road beds, basements and recreation facilities. This subdivision is built on the Grant Lake Limestone in the Outer Bluegrass. Increasingly, mixed land uses are juxtaposed, as in the case of this residential neighborhood next to a golf course, with industrial construction nearby. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1849 Agriculture is the dominant land use across much of the Nelson County. In the central part of the county in the Outer Bluegrass Region, gently rolling topography is characteristic of limestone bedrock, like this in the Grant Lake and Calloway Creek Limestones. In the Bluegrass Hills Region of far eastern Nelson County the bedrock contains more shale and the topography is hillier. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1848 Limestone and shale in the Mississippian Reelsville Limestone and Sample Sandstone in Meade County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1847 Madison County has two major townships– Richmond, the county seat and home of Eastern Kentucky University, and Berea, home of Berea College. The 2005 population of 72,408, was 25.9 percent greater than the population in 1990. Madison County was founded in 1798 and named after James Madison, the fourth president of the United States. Most of the county lies in the Outer Bluegrass Region, but the extreme southern area includes the outer edge of the Eastern Coalfield. The highest elevation in the county, 1,660 feet, is on Bear Mountain, 3 miles southeast of Berea. The lowest elevation, 530 feet, is at the confluence of the Kentucky River and Paint Lick Creek. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1846 Natural gas piplines (30-inch mains) are laid across a new subdivision in Kingston in Madison County. Rock excavation is often required in to the underlying dolomite and limestone in the Drakes Formation to sufficiently bury these pipelines. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1845 New construction in Richmond, Madison County, represents different land use characteristics than were there previously. Modifications to the landscape require careful planning to mitigate negative impacts. For example, less groundwater recharge and increased storm runoff occur because of increased pavement area. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1844 An earthen dam was constructed over the Ordovician Ashlock Formation limestones to contain Lake Reba in Richmond. Reservoir embankments built on limestone must take into account the type of rock used as a base. Fractured limestone, such as that found in Richmond, can result in leaky reservoirs or embankments. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1843 Chain-link fencing is used to prevent further rockfalls on a roadcut in Madison County. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1842 Heavy equipment is used to clean up a rockfall between Richmond and Irvine on Ky. 52. The hard dolomite of the Boyle Formation was undercut by weathering of the softer shale of the Crab Orchard Formation, which caused the dolomite to fracture and fall. Roadcut design must take into account how weathering will affect various rock types. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1841 Boonesboro Quarry in Madison County mines the Camp Nelson Limestone along the Kentucky River. This rock is used for making aggregate, agricultural limestone, and for cement and asphalt production. Kentucky is one of the top 10 limestone producers in the country. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1840 Boonesboro Quarry mines the Camp Nelson Limestone along the Kentucky River in Madison County. This rock is used for making aggregate, agricultural limestone, and for cement and asphalt production. Kentucky is one of the top 10 limestone producers in the country. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1839 Shale and limestone in the 500-million-year-old (Ordovician-age) Fairview Formation exposed at this roadcut on I-75 is common as bedrock in Kenton County, and can cause problems for builders because the shales in the unit can swell when exposed to water. Photo by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1838 Residential and commercial development in Fayette County presses against Jessamine County and spills across the line along U.S. 68. 2004 photo (modified) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
1837 1997 flood on the Ohio River at Louisville. Photo courtesy of Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1836 The Flood of 1997 in Louisville. Photo courtesy of Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1835 Hart County Stone has produced crushed stone and agricultural lime from the Ste. Genevieve Limestone in this quarry since 1940. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1834 The Green River divides the Hart County from east to west. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1833 Turtle in the road, Greenup County. Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina), native to the eastern United States and commonly referred to as the Common Box Turtle. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1832 Wild turkey, Greenup County. Eastern Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris), a subspecies of Wild Turkey, is found predominantly in the Eastern United States. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1831 U.S. 23 Ohio River bridge, South Portsmouth, Greenup County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1830 Barge at Greenup. The Ohio River provides transportation for heavy industry and power plants. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1829 The 330-acre Williamstown Lake in Grant County serves as a water-supply reservoir, and provides fishing and boating recreation for residents and vacationers. 2004 aerial photo by the U.S. Agriculture Department, Farm Services Administration, National Aerial Imagery Program.   View Geologic Map
1828 The Epperson landfill, located on the shaley Kope Formation in Grant County, contains 1.9 million tons of nonhazardous solid waste and is permitted to accept another 3.9 million tons. A network of environmental protection systems includes a clay and synthethic liner, a leachate collection system, and a gas management system. This 2004 aerial photo was taken by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
1827 The 330-acre Williamstown Lake in Grant County serves as a water-supply reservoir, and provides fishing and boating recreation for residents and vacationers. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1826 The E.W. Brown Generating Station in Mercer County as seen from a residential neighborhood in Garrard County. The station has three generations of electricity-producing processes: a hydroelectric plant (now used only after heavy rainfall raises water levels at Herrington Lake), fossil-fuel generating units burning 1.5 million tons of coal per year, and six new combustion turbines, fueled by natural gas or fuel oil. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1825 This sinkhole, located along Ky. 753 in northern Garrard County in the lower part of the Lexington Limestone, is typical of the karst topography of the area. Groundwater flow occurs in fractures in the limestone bedrock. Sinkholes should be carefully considered prior to any development in karst areas, which include sinking streams, caves, and springs. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1824 Herrington Lake covers nearly 3,500 acres in Garrard, Boyle, and Mercer Counties. The lake is a major recreational resource in Garrard County, and is surrounded by residential housing. The Camp Nelson Limestone is exposed along the shore. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1823 The Switzer Covered Bridge once carried SR KY 1262 across North Elkhorn Creek at Switzer in eastern Franklin County. It is a 120 foot long Howe truss design built in 1855 and restored in 1906 and again in 1990. On March 1, 1997 the bridge was washed away in a flood and was restored in 1998. Located approximately 0.1 miles east of SR 1689 (Switzer Road) on SR 1262. The bridge is on the north side of SR 1262 over North Elkhorn Creek. Photo by Brandon Nuttall, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1822 Kentucky State Capitol, Capitol Ave., Frankfort, Franklin County. Included in National Register of Historic Places, 1973. Photo by Brandon Nuttall, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1821 Low water on the Kentucky River at the Benson Creek riverwalk bridge in Franklin County. Photo by Brandon Nuttall, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1820 This constructed sinkhole on the Tanglewood Limestone at Hudson Hollow in Franklin County is adjacent to a natural sinkhole, and is used to control flooding during heavy rains. The underground system was built with two constructed swallets to redirect groundwater flow toward the Kentucky River. Photo by Brandon Nuttall, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1819 Floyd County is a completely dissected upland, with valleys and ridges occupying about equal amounts of land and elevation differences between ridgetops and valleys of as much as 900 feet. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1818 Groundwater seepage from sandstone. About 13,700 people (one in three)in Floyd County rely on private domestic water supplies: 12,600 use wells and 1,100 use hauled water, cisterns, and other sources. Some wells in the relatively thick, sandy alluvium along much of Levisa Fork produce 20 to 25 gallons per minute, which is more than adequate for domestic supplies. More than three-quarters of wells drilled in valley bottoms and almost three-quarters of the wells drilled on hillsides are adequate for domestic supplies. Only some wells on hilltops and ridges are adequate for domestic needs. Drilled wells more than 200 feet deep in valleys may yield enough water for small municipal or industrial supplies. Groundwater is generally moderately hard with noticeable amounts of iron. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1817 Coal train in Floyd County. Sandstone cut from the Pikeville Formation. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1816 Kudzu bloom, September, Floyd County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1815 Grant Lake limestone and shale along Ky. 11 in Fleming County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1814 Grant Lake Limestone along Ky. 11 in Fleming County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1813 Marker at Ringo's Mill Covered Bridge in Fleming County, built in 1867, restored in 1984 by L.A. Thompson. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, 1976. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1812 The black shales of the Devonian Ohio Shale lie beneath sandstone and form the lower slopes of the Eastern Hills in Fleming County. These shales provide poor support and contain iron pyrite, which causes them to swell when wet and shrink when dry. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1811 Shale oil from the black shale in the Devonian Ohio Shale formation in Fleming County may someday be economically viable. Note the vertical fissures. These shales provide poor support. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1810 Cumberland County, 306 square miles in the Eastern Pennyroyal Region, was formed in 1799. The lowest elevation, 505 feet, is where the Cumberland River leaves the county. The highest elevation, 1,126 feet, is on a ridge at the Tennessee border about 5/8 mile southeast of Ashlock. The 2006 population of 7,211 was 0.9 percent greater than that of 2000. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1809 Butterflies, Clay County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1808 The thinly laminated New Albany Shale in Clark County makes a poor foundation. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1807 Carter County, 411 square miles in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, was established in 1838. Steep slopes are common in the county, and the elevation ranges from 542 feet where the Little Sandy River leaves the county, to 1,300 feet on a ridge about six-tenths of a mile north of Interstate 64 on the Rowan County line. The population in 2004, 27,459, was 2.1 percent more than in 2000. The cities of Olive Hill and Grayson, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Water District, provide public water to over 85 percent of the county households. The majority of those not on public water rely on private water wells. The cities of Grayson and Olive Hill also provide wastewater treatment services for 20 percent of county residents. The 1,500-acre Grayson Lake provides for water supply and recreation. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1806 Coal barge on the Ohio River at Carrollton. Much of the industry along the river valley relies on transportation of raw materials by barge. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1805 Gypsum from Ghent plant scrubbers in Carroll County is processed and shipped to nearby BPB plant and used for manufacturing wallboard. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1804 Steep-sided hills with deeply incised drainages are common in Bullitt County. The shales and siltstones from which the hills are formed are susceptible to slumping and sliding, especially where clay shales occur in slopes. Clay shales can become plastic when wet and may yield or slump if construction or roads built on them are not adequately drained. Builders should avoid cutting into the toe (base) of hills or past slides. Bent trees on slopes and water seeps at the base of slopes may indicate past or potential movement. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1803 Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest was established in the 1930s in south-central Bullitt County. It has one of the largest collections of American hollies in North America. The park offers miles of hiking trails and numerous public programs. The new visitors center is constructed with a septic system that uses peat filters (green squares) to purify wastes. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1802 Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest was established in the 1930s in south-central Bullitt County. It has one of the largest collections of American hollies in North America. The park offers miles of hiking trails and numerous public programs. The new visitors center is constructed with a septic system that uses peat filters (green squares) to purify wastes. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1801 Shale is quarried in northern Bullitt County to make a lightweight aggregate for use in construction materials. The shale is the latest in a long history of natural resources that have been excavated in the county, including salt and pig iron (in the 1800s), limestone for aggregate, siltstone for dimension stone, and clay shales for bricks and tiles. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1800 Shale is quarried in northern Bullitt County to make a lightweight aggregate for use in construction materials. The shale is the latest in a long history of natural resources that have been excavated in the county, including salt and pig iron (in the 1800s), limestone for aggregate, siltstone for dimension stone, and clay shales for bricks and tiles. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1799 Riprap drainage control and erosion protection in Bullitt County. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1798 Kentucky bourbon is produced at the Wild Turkey plant on the Kentucky River at Tyrone in Anderson County. Limestone waters are used to cook the corn and reportedly provide the distinctive Kentucky bourbon flavor. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1797 A new state-of-the-art wastewater treatment plant at Campton in Wolfe County treats 120,000 gallons per day and discharges clean water to a local stream. The old plant was situated next to a public water well owned by the city (now abandoned). Photos by Richard Smath, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1796 Tilted strata of Sewanee and Warren Point Sandstone at the crest of Pine Mountain on Ky. 1595 in Whitley County.   View Geologic Map
1795 Erosion-resistant sandstones of the Rockcastle Conglomerate line the banks and form the cliffs below Cumberland Falls in Whitley County. The 60-foot-high, 125-foot-wide falls is known as the "Niagara of the South."   View Geologic Map
1794 Kudzu, an invasive species from East Asia, creates a leafy sculpture as it blankets a hillside in Rockcastle County. It can grow 12 inches in a day, or 60 feet in a season. The nonwoody parts are edible. Studies have shown that kudzu can reduce hangovers and alcohol cravings. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1793 Poor drainage and flooding in alluvial valleys may affect development activities in Powell County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1792 Pike County, Kentucky's largest county with an area of 788 square miles, was formed in 1822 in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. It was named after General Zebulon Pike (who discovered Pikes Peak). The highest point in the county, 3,149 feet, is on a peak 2 1/4 miles southwest of Ashcamp. The lowest elevation, 610 feet, is where Tug Fork leaves the county. The county population in 2005 was 66,804, 2.8 percent smaller than in 2000. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1791 New bridge construction in the Pikeville and Hyden Formations for the Ky. 119 road relocation project between Pikeville and Williamson by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. The project will cost $33 million. U.S. 23 has been upgraded to a four-lane highway and is a major north-south connector. Expanding U.S. highways in the county from two to four lanes will improve safety and enhance economic activity. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1790 Shale, siltstone, and limestone of the Fort Payne Formation can be seen along Ky. 100. Siltstone is present in the steep hills of the Cumberland River basin in eastern Monroe County. In the west, limestone and shale predominate in the unit and the terrain is less rugged. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1789 The 450-million-year-old thick-bedded limestone at the base of the Cumberland Formation can be seen along Ky. 100 near Meshack in Monroe County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1788 Alluvial valleys provide broad areas for agriculture. With nearly 60,000 head of cattle, Monroe County is one of the leading producers in the state. Annual agriculture revenue is nearly $35 million. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1787 The Cumberland River provides soul-cleansing beauty, fishing, and transportation. The last free 24-hour ferry in Kentucky operates at McMillians Landing near Otia in Monroe County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1786 The 400-million year old Devonian Chattanooga Shale along Ky. 100 in Monroe County contains enough organic matter to burn. It breaks down quickly when exposed, and may swell when wet and shrink when dry. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1785 The exact source of the anomalous Brecciated Sandstone beneath the airport in Monroe County is still uncertain. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1784 The more rugged terrain of the Mississippian limestones produces timber for lumber and wood products industry in Monroe County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1783 The 113-acre Mill Creek Lake serves as a water supply reservoir and fishing hole in Monroe County. The adjacent recreation area offers picnic areas, sports facilities, and wooded areas for hiking. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1782 The Salt River bisects Mercer County from north to south. Shale and limestone are dominant to the west of the river; karstic limestones dominant to the east. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1781 Carveable limestone from the Renfro Member of the Borden Formation was excavated from these caves in Menifee County. A rare two weeks of subfreezing weather created the environment for the formation of stalagmite icicles. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1780 Shale in the Borden Formation is exposed along Shingle Block Road in Lincoln County. This shale provides a poor foundation, may swell when wet and shrink when dry, and erodes easily. The Borden Formation forms the slopes on Muldraugh Hill and is generally characterized by steep, tree-covered slopes except for a few ridgetops capped by erosion-resistant siltstone or limestone. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1779 The 360-million year old New Albany Shale in Lincoln County provides rolling land for agriculture and home sites, but is unstable on slopes and requires drainage management. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1778 The 360-million year old New Albany Shale is exposed near Old Fall Lick Road in Lincoln County. The black shales are high in organic matter and are thought to be a potential source of oil. The shale provides rolling land for agriculture and home sites, but is unstable on slopes and requires drainage management. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1777 Mudstone, dolomite, and shale in the Preachersville Member of the Drakes Formation can be seen in this roadcut on U.S 150 in Lincoln County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1776 Nally & Hayden LLC extract over 500,000 tons of limestone per year from the Bardstown and Rowland Members of the Drakes Formation in this quarry and provide crushed stone and agricultural limestone to Marion County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1775 Limestones and dolomites of the 450-million-year-old Drakes Formation in northern Marion County provide soils and terrain for a strong agricultural economy. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1774 Rural residential development on the Mississippian New Albany Shale off Ky. 208 in Marion County. Nearby alluvial soil of Indian Lick Creek grows a healthy corn crop. Elevated levels of radon may be associated with the shale, and homes should be tested. Simple ventilation can lower levels. Drainage management may also be required. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1773 Sportsmans Lake, near the Lebanon city limits, is a public recreational area owned by the Commonwealth of Kentucky and operated by Marion County. The lake and surrounding area offer a clubhouse, a playground, and facilities for fishing, picnicking, and archery. Drinking water for Lebanon and Marion County is provided by the Rolling Fork River and the Fagan Branch Reservoir; 95 percent of the residents are on public water. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1772 Laminated layers of siltstone in the Halls Gap Member of the Borden Formation are exposed at this roadcut on Ky. 208 south of Phillipsburg in Marion County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1771 A horizontal layer of the Harrodsburg Limestone lies above the siltstone, limestone, and shale of the Muldraugh Member of the Borden Formation at this roadcut on U.S. 68/Ky. 55 in Marion County near the Taylor County line provide a good illustration of these Mississippian (350 million years old) rocks. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1770 Gravel bars in the Rolling Fork River west of New Market in Marion County. The Rolling Fork provides water for agriculture and communities. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1769 Alluvium deposited by the Rolling Fork in Marion County provides fertile soils for row crops. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1768 The Knobs, which dominate the horizon in Marion County, consists of hundreds of isolated, steep-sloping, often cone-shaped hills. They were originally continuous with the Mississippian Plateau, but were separated from the plateau by stream erosion. Many of the knobs are still capped by erosionally resistant limestones or sandstones. The sharp slopes of the Knobs are mostly composed of shales of the 350-million-year-old Mississippian Borden Formation, which are more easily eroded than the overlying limestones and sandstones. The base of the Knobs commonly contains Devonian black shales. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1767 Marion County, 346 square miles, was established in 1834. The 2005 population was 18,754 (54 people per square mile), 10.4 percent larger than in 1990. The county includes parts of the Outer Bluegrass and Knobs Regions. The southern boundary of the county approximates the position of Muldraughs Hill, a regional escarpment. The highest point in the county is Putnam Knob, 1,260 feet, about 6 miles east of Lebanon. The lowest elevation, 475 feet, is where Hardin Creek leaves the northern tip of the county. The geographic center of Kentucky is in Marion County, just northwest of Lebanon. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1766 Roadbeds cut into shale often require additional support to reduce pavement failure, as seen in this section along Ky. 708 in Lee County in the Grundy Formation. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1765 The porous Grier Limestone Member of the Lexington Limestone in Woodford County is laced with solution channels, cracks, and crevices. Contaminated water and septic effluent can travel quickly through underground openings and pollute surface and groundwater. Prior to the Civil War, limestone was obtained from many small quarries in the Inner Bluegrass Region, mostly in the Grier Limestone Member, and used principally to build stone walls.   View Geologic Map
1764 The Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky is the thoroughbred capital of the world. Farmland in Woodford and other counties in the region has come under increasing pressure from urban expansion. One of the efforts to preserve the land is the Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) program, which pays farm owners the difference between the agricultural value and the development value in return tor the owners ceding development rights in perpetuity. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1763 The Tyrone Limestone forms the bed of Griers Creek in Woodford County. Steep, fast-flowing ephemeral creeks to the Kentucky River quickly erode soft materials, leaving behind the erosion-resistant limestone. The Tyrone Limestone is quarried on the west side of the Kentucky River 1/2 mile northwest of Tyrone. The crushed rock is used for road metal and agricultural lime. In the past, rock from the Tyrone Limestone has been used for both building and monumental stone. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1762 Abandoned limestone quarries, like this in the Tyrone Limestone, are scattered throughout Woodford County. Limestone was used to build roads, homes, and fences. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1761 Once the new by-pass in Woodford County was completed, residential development on the Lexington Limestones quickly followed. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1760 This 200-year-old structure in Woodford County on the Historic Register, built in 1807 using local limestone, is now the estate of a Kentucky eagle. Limestone homes were built to last. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1759 South Elkhorn Creek bounds the Woodford County on the northeast. It provided power for many early grain mills, and is still used by Weisenberger Mills. Maintaining the water quality of this semi-urban stream requires continued vigilance. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1758 Down many country lanes in the Inner Bluegrass, like this one in Woodford County, visitors can find oak trees older than the county overlooking historic stone fences built of local limestone by Irish immigrants. The fences are preserved through regulation in Historic Districts. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1757 Located at the Woodford County Park, Falling Springs is a state-of-the-art recreation center, complete with 3 court gymnasium, indoor pool, outdoor splash pool, therapy pool, fitness center, aerobics room, meeting rooms, and a 310 seat performing arts theater. The Woodford County Park is also home to 9 baseball and softball fields, 2 pavilions, a cross country course, and the Community Stadium (football/soccer). Bike paths provide access to the park for young and old. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1756 Woodford County Courthouse, Versailles. This is the fourth courthouse in the county. Previous building built 1812-13, burned in 1965. Current courthouse completed in 1970. Woodford County, 191 square miles in the Inner Bluegrass Region, was established in 1789 as the ninth Kentucky county.Elevation ranges from 1,000 feet on a ridge north of Dry Ridge Road, to 469 feet at the Kentucky River where it leaves the county in the north. The population in 2005 was 23,881. The population growth from 2000 to 2005 was 2.9 percent. Population growth in the county appears to be slowing: the average 5-year growth rate for the preceding 40 years was 8.7 percent, or 3 times higher than that of 2000-2005. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1755 The Lexington Limestone provides fertile soils for agriculture and desirable sites for residential development in Woodford County. Residential development in karst areas like the Inner Bluegrass must provide for adequate wastewater treatment systems to prevent pollution to groundwater and other water sources. Careful planning can preserve and enhance the value of the land and minimize conflicting interests. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1754 Terrain of the lower part of the Lexington Limestone in Woodford County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1753 The valley remains, but the river is gone. High-level deposits of silt, clay, sand, and gravel along Mundys Landing Road in southern Woodford County are remnants of the ancient Kentucky River that flowed through the Inner Bluegrass 5 million years ago. At that time, the land was uplifted, diverting the river to its current course. There are a number of these old valleys in the uplands along the Kentucky River. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1752 Karst topography is common in Wayne County, and is seen in this area of residential construction on the St. Louis Limestone. Weathered limestone must be excavated to build houses, and sinkholes in this neighborhood have been filled with the excavated material. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1751 Although located primarily in the Eastern Pennyroyal, Wayne County also has foothills of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, as seen in this photo. Land- use practices differ significantly in the more mountainous parts of the county. View looking south. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1750 This sinkhole in the St. Louis Limestone near the new courthouse in Monticello in Wayne County has been neglected. Sinkholes can be a source of contamination to local aquifers, and should also be carefully considered before building in the area. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1749 A small cave in the St. Louis Limestone is located in Monticello in Wsyne County across from the new courthouse. This cave was apparently used by the public in the past, and included a rock staircase and reflection pool nearby. It is now in a state of disrepair and marred by litter. Caves like this one are very susceptible to contamination from storm sewers, and are likely to be connected to the local aquifer. Photograph by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1748 Cover-collapse sinkholes such as this one in the St. Louis Limestone in Wayne County may appear overnight when the soil plug at their base collapses into a fracture or cave in the underlying limestone. These are direct conduits to the local aquifer, and as such are susceptible to contamination by garbage dumping and accidental spills. They are also hazards to public safety. Photograph by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1747 A National Historic Site, Mill Springs in Wayne County is the location of one of the first important battles of the Civil War in 1862. It is named after 13 springs that feed a creek which powers the gristmill, constructed in 1839. The mill is still in operation, and is considered one of the largest in the world. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1746 This well-house in Wayne County is situated near a pond that is probably a "sinkhole pond", meaning that it is connected to the Ste. Genevieve Limestone aquifer by fractures in the bedrock, but is currently plugged with soil. Cattle feedlots or pastures near this well or pond can cause increased nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Photograph by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1745 The majority of Wayne County's land use is agricultural, exemplified by this soybean crop. Best management practices are recommended to ensure that pesticide and fertilizer applications do not pose problems to the groundwater supply. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1744 Springfield Quarry in the Ashlock Formation and Springfield Reservoir in Washington County seen from the air. Aerial photo by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.   View Geologic Map
1743 Soils and terrain created by the dolomite of the Saluda Member of the Drakes Formation in Washington County are, for the most part, favorable for agriculture. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1742 Lincoln Homestead State Park in Washington County features the original home of Lincoln’s mother, as well as replicas of the 1782 cabin and blacksmith shop where his father grew up and learned his trade. The park includes an 18-hole golf course. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1741 Limestone in the Ashlock Formation in Washington County provides rich soils for agriculture, attractive sites for rural residential construction, habitat for wildlife, and industrial sites. Thoughtful planning can minimize conflicting interests and accommodate the needs of all. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1740 Limestone in the Ashlock Formation in Washington County provides rich soils for agriculture, attractive sites for rural residential construction, habitat for wildlife, and industrial sites. Thoughtful planning can minimize conflicting interests and accommodate the needs of all. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1739 The limestone and shale in the lower member of the Grant Lake Limestone in Washington County, has thicker limestone layers with slightly different characteristics than the upper layer. These variations illustrate that excavation requirements may vary from site to site within the same rock unit. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1738 Willisburg Lake in Washington County offers 160 acres of boating and fishing—bass, crappie, bluegill, and catfish. It is also a source of water for the Springfield Water and Sewer Commission. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1737 Thin, interbedded layers of limestone and shale in the upper part of the Grant Lake Limestone are exposed in this roadcut on Ky. 555 in north Springfield, Washington County. The limestone and shale in the lower member of the Grant Lake Limestone has thicker limestone layers with slightly different characteristics. These variations illustrate that excavation requirements may vary from site to site within the same rock unit. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1736 Washington County, 301 square miles in the Outer Bluegrass Region, was formed in 1792 as the 10th Kentucky county and named after President George Washington. The courthouse, the oldest still in use in Kentucky, was completed in 1816 and contains the marriage certificate of Abraham Lincoln's parents. The terrain of the county ranges from rugged to rolling. The highest elevation, 1,020 feet, is on a ridge south of U.S. 150 near the southeastern corner of the county. The lowest elevation, 475 feet, is at the confluence of Brush Fork and Hardins Creek. The 2005 population of 11,491 was 5.3 percent greater than that of 2000. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1735 Shale and limestone of the Clays Ferry Formation are exposed at this roadcut on Ky. 53 in Washington County. The shale breaks down quickly when exposed to air and water, leaving no support for the limestone. Cedar trees quickly reclaim an exposure. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1734 The Springfield Reservoir is one of several sources of water for the public water system in Washington County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1733 Limestone in the Ashlock Formation in Washington County provides rich soils for agriculture, attractive sites for rural residential construction, habitat for wildlife, and industrial sites. Thoughtful planning can minimize conflicting interests and accommodate the needs of all. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1732 Soils and terrain of the dolomite in the Saluda Member of the Drakes Formation in Washington County are, for the most part, favorable for agriculture. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1731 Washington County is blessed with an abundance of water. Cartwright Creek is one of many large streams in the county. Maintaining water quality is important for the human population and the fish and fowl that rely on the streams. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1730 Limestone in the Ashlock Formation in Washington County in the Outer Bluegrass provides rich soils for agriculture, attractive sites for rural residential construction, habitat for wildlife, and industrial sites. Thoughtful planning can minimize conflicting interests and accomodate the needs of all. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1729 The Mt. Zion Covered Bridge (also known as the Mooresville Covered Bridge), circa 1871, at 102 feet is the longest multi-span in Kentucky and is on the National Register of Historic Places, 1976. Closed to traffic. Located on Ky. 458, 2.2 miles north of junction with Ky. 55, the bridge spans the Little Beech Fork River in Washington County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1728 Cedar trees quickly reclaim a cleared hillside on the Clays Ferry Formation in Washington County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1727 As the shale content in the underlying rock increases, the terrain becomes more rugged. The hills of the Clays Ferry Formation in Washington County support small beef operations. Small ponds are common. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1726 Rural residential development in southern Trimble County on limestones of the Bull Fork and Drakes Formation. Note sinkholes in foreground. Construction in karst areas must consider potential sinkhole drainage and collapse problems. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1725 Trimble County, nearly 149 square miles in the Outer Bluegrass Region, was established in 1837. It rises from 420 feet at the Ohio River to 970 feet in the uplands. The population in 2000 was 8,125, or about 55 people per square mile. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1724 Louisville Gas & Electric operates this 566 megawatt coal-fired power plant along the Ohio River just north of Wises Landing in southeastern Trimble County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1723 In wetlands along the Ohio River in Trimble County, wildlife lives in harmony with industry. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1722 Republic Services Inc.'s Valley View landfill in southern Trimble County has been in operation since 1986 and is scheduled for closure in 2030. It currently contains about 4.7 million tons of nonhazardous municipal waste. This imagery was taken in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Administration, National Agricultural Imagery Program.  View Geologic Map
1721 Soil underlain by the 420-million-year-old Louisville Limestone provide the foundation for an agricultural economy in Trimble County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1720 Public water wells in the Ohio River alluvium in Trimble County. This aquifer can meet water needs for communities, industry, and power generation. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1719 Guist Creek Lake and Marina on Ky. 1667 in Shelby County. This park, managed by the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife, is a popular recreational attraction. Lake Shelby, a smaller lake near Shelbyville, also offers fishing and recreation. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1718 Shelby County has six water districts, and all major cities and towns are served by public water. Guist Creek Lake reservoir is a public water supply for the Shelbyville water system, which is why the drainage area around the lake is a source-water protection area. The water treatment plant (shown here at the dam) can treat 6 million gallons per day. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.   View Geologic Map
1717 This sinkhole in the Grant Lake Limestone is typical of those in Shelby County. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1716 Pastoral view looking east along Todds Point Road south of Simpsonville in Shelby County. Land use remains primarily agricultural, although residential and commercial construction is increasing. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1715 A new subdivision being constructed on the Grant Lake Limestone near Simpsonville in Shelby County. The area is within the Louisville metropolitan area, and the areas closest to Louisville are being rapidly developed for both residential and industrial land use. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1714 Shelby County's comprehensive plan notes that upland areas are well suited for grain production, whereas deep, well-drained soils are better for tobacco and alfalfa. This photo of land over the Calloway Creek Limestone was taken near the intersection of Ky. 144 and Ky. 148. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1713 Shelby County is the self-proclaimed Saddlebred Capitol of the World, and the gently rolling hills in the eastern and northern parts of the county, underlain by the Grant Lake Limestone and Drakes Formation limestones, contain numerous horse farms. Photo by Stephen Greb, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1712 Areas underlain by the shales and limestones of Clays Ferry Formation in Scott County are characterized by a topography of rolling hills. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1711 Deer graze at this quiet bend on North Elkhorn Creek in Scott County. Proper management of on-site wastewater treatment systems is essential to prevent pollution of valuable water resources. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1710 Victoria Estates, a private lakeside community, is one of several lakeside developments of several hundred homes in the county. Lots are one acre or larger. Proper management of private wastewater treatment systems is essential to maintain water quality, particularly in the karst areas of southern Scott County. Photo by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1709 Turtles sunbathe at this quiet bend on North Elkhorn Creek in Scott County. Proper management of on-site wastewater treatment systems is essential to prevent pollution of valuable water resources. Photos by Dan Carey, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1708 Royal Spring has provided drinking water to Scott County residents for over 225 years. The groundwater basin for the spring extends into northern Fayette County, and is susceptible to contamination from development, agriculture, and transportation on I-75. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.  View Geologic Map
1707 A large sinkhole in the St. Louis Limestone along Ky. 27 near Somerset, approximately 50 feet in diameter. Sinkholes found near any construction project, whether industrial or residential, must be carefully considered and require special management. Photo by Bart Davidson, Kentucky Geological Survey.