blue fluorite with white barite
This internet map service provides scanned document information and location data pertaining to
Kentucky's ore mineral resources and their associated commodities; fluorite (fluorspar), galena (lead),
sphalerite (zinc), barite, iron, nitrates, and phosphates. Many of these mineral deposits were once mined
in the state, and remaining reserves of fluorite and zinc still exist in some areas. This map and data service
will provide future miners important information about previous mining activities. Other minerals,
such as titanium, uranium, and rare earth elements in igneous intrusions, may have potential for mining and
available data is included.
Three primary areas of interest are covered by this map service, Central Kentucky Mineral District (CKMD),
Western Kentucky Fluorspar District (WKFD), and South-Central Mineral District (SKMD). These are
recognized regions of established ore deposits that had been explored or mined for over 100 years for
fluorspar, zinc, or barite from mapped mineral vein deposits and associated ore bodies. Included are
several areas of iron ore mining activity and regions of historic phosphate mining.
The data in this service is complex and covers documents derived from numerous mining companies active in the
districts. As such, the quality of the data varies from basic field or mine notes, to formal reports and maps.
Many mine names have changed and may be known as an alias. Different companies may have reworked the same mine
creating multiple or different mine names for the same locality. In these cases, the alias name was included
and placed in parentheses. The most dominant mine name was chosen as the best criteria in the WKFD in order to
resolve some of these database and organizational issues, since there are primarily three counties in the
district and hundreds of mines and prospects. In the CKMD, data are organized by county name; and when some
data are selected, all available information for that county may be presented to the user. The SKMD is
organized by counties and contains numerous cores that are considered significant. No actual mining took
place in the Kentucky portion of this district and only one exploration shaft was constructed, the Cominco
American shaft in Cumberland County.
Drill hole logs are problematic since there have been thousands of cores drilled throughout the mining
districts and individual location maps were sometimes not available nor referenced from a known standard
coordinate system. For instance, many Alcoa logs and maps were provided and available for download, but the
coordinates are plotted from an Alcoa reference point. The supporting base maps are thus generally located by
their polygonal footprint, whereas their individual drill hole locations are not.
From a vast collection of approximately 20,000 scanned images of multipage reports, field notes, maps,
core logs, cross sections, etc., a minerals document database of over 3700 PDFs were compiled and then
finally linked to a geospatial feature class of mineral location data. There may be additional tabular and
descriptive core data available through the Core and Sample Holdings database search engine or its associated
map service at the KGS Website. Geochemical and geophysical data are available for some mine areas, as well as
some limestone quarries which are included when important.
These data are a digital compilation of spatially referenced point locations for all mapped mines,
shafts, dikes, prospects, outcrops, core holes, and drill holes associated with the mineral ore
industry of Kentucky. Also included are linear features of mineral veins and igneous dikes,
as well as their respective areal extents. Much of these data, especially in the WKFD, were secured
from maps, drill hole logs, field notes, and interpretations that were donated to the KGS, as well as
from locations posted on topographic base maps. Most of the remaining data were captured and cataloged
during digital map conversion of the scanned geologic quadrangle maps. Consistent data attribution for the
various features was finalized utilizing GIS software, links to scanned documents (maps, reports, core logs,
sections) were completed, and the compiled feature data was then posted to the map service.
How to use this map service: This website has three frames.
- The left-hand frame is organized into four panes for 1) visualizing the legends, 2) selecting the layers
to display, 3) querying the mineral feature's name, commodity, mineral, or location and 4) printing the map view.
- The central frame contains a scalable map to view the geographic location and extent of mineral ore
deposits and the data used to characterize them. Included within the frame are tools to zoom in, zoom out,
pan, return to full extent, and change background base map.
- The bottom frame returns scanned document information (if available) of selected or queried results
with attached links to downloadable PDFs. These documents may range from detailed publications, maps, or
cross sections to in-house company reports, field notes, work maps, drill hole logs, and lab analyses.
Shortcuts and hints:
- Zoom in to an area of interest. Labels for features will turn on and become visible as one zooms in
closer. Legends for point features will update from generic blue symbology to more site-specific
symbology as zoom level increases.
- Click on a map feature to see if any document information is available. A second click on the same
feature within the map frame will return a pop-up of additional attribute data (i.e., Ore ID, site name,
commodity, deposit type, district, county, etc.).
- Information available for any selected feature will be returned into the bottom frame as a viewable or
downloadable PDF. Click on the Name column to zoom in and center the map view.
- Layers in the left-hand frame can be turned on or off as needed. Transparency can be adjusted for
Geologic Faults and Original GQ Map Image layers.
- In the query pane labeled "Find Mineral Features", a more general search term (iron, lead, prospect, mine)
may return many more results than needed. Selected features will be highlighted in bright red. Sort through the
list of returned names and documents in the bottom window and click on one to zoom in further.
- Proper names, if used, can be searched in the site name field (i.e., Klondike, Hutson, Old Jim, Robinson,
Memphis, Burkesville, Twin Chimney, Rose Run, etc.) If an item is not found under one mine name search on
adjacent mines or on regional maps.
- Only Mineral Points, Mineral Linear Features, and Mineral Areas are selectable. The Mineral Districts
layer is only provided for general map label purposes and features are not selectable.
As more spatial data and/or associated documents are added to the minerals database, this map service will
be updated as needed. Links to documents will be refined to be more site-specific. Some links
currently return more documents than are currently necessary. Summary reports, reserve studies,
and regional maps are also available, but may not be easily found on the map server at this time.
These information should be available in future releases.
This compilation was performed by staff at the Kentucky Geological Survey with assistance in document
scanning by students of the University of Kentucky from the period 2000-2013. Funding was supported,
in part, by various grants from the U.S. Geological Survey. Acknowledgment is made to Richard Smath,
who supervised over 50 students for scanning documents during the time period, Tom Sparks, for initial
database organization and integration, and Doug Curl, for the database and internet map server implementation.
Special acknowledgement is also extended to the many people who donated information or allowed us to use their
data for public use. These individuals were or are still active in the mining industry and include Mr.
William R. Frazer, Marion, Ky; Robert D. Trace, Brownsville, TX; Boyce Moodie III, Smithland, Ky; Del
Harper and Fred Smith, Tennessee, and the countless other geologists and mining engineers who contributed
vital information and documentation on the early mining activity in the district. Many of them wrote
publications and contributed to earlier War Minerals and U.S. Bureau of Mines Reports.